The Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain, Part 2:-- John Ruskin--

[under construction 11-10-09]

Impact on Furniture Design With Emergence of Vernacular/Organic Architecture, 1850s-1900s

Directory for Pages on the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain

[under construction 11-10-09]

The Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain, Part 1:-- August Northmore Welby Pugin and Neo-Gothicism--

The Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain, Part 2:-- John Ruskin--

The Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain, Part 3:-- William Morris--

The Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain, Part 4:-- Edward William Godwin and Bruce Talbert, and Christopher Dresser--

The Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain, Part 5:-- Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo--

The Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain, No 6:-- M Hugh Baillie-Scott,C F A Voysey, Charles Rennie Mackintosh

See examples of Furniture With Vernacular/Organic Architecture Designs in Isabelle Anscombe's Arts and Crafts Style

Anscombe's book is not available for viewing online, but, if you're interested on bookfinder.com you can find a copy for a reasonable price

The "Overview" in the Iframe page below sketches out the highlights of the beginning of vernacular design in furniture. click here for a full-screen page



Overview

Until I discovered the 1905 The English House, a 3-volume set, by the German, Hermann Muthesius, I wasn't sufficiently sensitive to how, in America, the taste for Arts and Crafts architecture and design was shaped.

As the Arts and Crafts movement matured in Britain -- by turning its attention on the middle-class home -- it achieved a greater sense of domestic grace and coherence. Part of its achieving grace and coherence emerged out of the dropping of the overbearing Gothic symbolism, giving way to a more manageable conception of domestic pleasures.

Inspired by a sheltering visage of the cottage and the farmhouse, the Arts and Crafts house started to symbolize warmth and protection, informality and welcome. Rural traditions, vernacular architecture, local materials — these were the elements employed by British architect-designers such as A. H. Mackmurdo, C. F. A. Voysey, M H Baillie-Scott, and C. R. Mackintosh, and others.

The goal: to place a building within its specific landscape and to enhance the ornamental role of structural elements, and to achieve the goal, rough-cast stucco, tile-hanging, shingles, half-timbering, pat­terned brickwork, and mullioned and leaded windows were all used. Moreover, these designers did not limit themselves simply to the "house", but envisaged their role from a broader perspective, a perspective that included the interior and it furnishings, and thus could be said to be designing "homes", not simply houses, a theme that among the four architect-designers, at least Baillie-Scott, for one, argued.

from comino These ideas and practices -- the architect seeing his role broadened beyond simply house design, to also embrace interior design and furniture -- trace back in the 19th century. The Gothic Revival architects in the mid-nineteenth century played an important role in the establishment and widespread acceptance of the Gothic style, and of a new approach to furniture design.

The ideas struck by these British architect-designers were absorbed by Frank Lloyd Wright, and Greene and Greene in America, or Eliel Saarinen in Finland. (For our narrative, it was the creative drive of these four that had such a forceful and lasting impact upon Gustav Stickley and/or Stickley's designer associates.)

I was informed by Rodel and Binzen's Taunton Press Book

Only then -- belatedly -- did the masterful account -- laid out in text and colored images -- of the Arts and Crafts "movements" -- both yesterday and today -- by Kevin P. Rodel and Jonathon Binzen in their Arts and Crafts Furniture: From Classic to Contemporary -- begin to have an impact. The forces from which these ideals materialized in Britain were provided largely by architects. But along with Rodel and Binzen -- who don't document their sources -- major biographies by James Kornwolf on the British architect-designer, M H Baillie-Scott, Wendy Mitchmough on the British architect-designer, C F A Voysey, and David Cathers, on Gustav Stickley, chronicle and document the fertile fields in Britain that Gustav Stickley and other American furniture designers and manufacturers exploited for ideas in the 1890s and 1910s. The accounts of Voysey and Baillie-Scott's contributions -- especially on furniture design -- are discussed below; Cathers' narrative of how Voysey and his contemporaries are discussed here

First Venacular Architecture Which Include Specially-Designed Furniture is Philip Webb's 1859 Red House for William Morris

[image on p 31 of pevsner, 1949; image of interior on page 98 of anscombe, 1991] Philip Webb's Red House – built in 1859 for William Morris and specifically designed to create an environment for a modern family – is the first house to break with the neo-gothicism of the nineteenth century. Afterwards -- according to Isabelle Anscombe -- Webb was "never satisfied with a building until it began to look commonplace", a concept meaning that decorative elements are reserved and understated, with many built-in cupboards, sideboards and benches.

norman shaw chair 1876

A precursor to the movement, in London in the 1830s and 1840s, A.W. N. Pugin designed interior fittings and furniture expressly for his buildings. In 1859 William Morris's Red House -- designed by Philip Webb and furnished down to the last dessert fork by Morris and his circle -- elaborated on many of these same ideas. The 1879 chair -- on the left -- by the architect, Norman Shaw (1831-1912), is a link between the neo-Gothicism of early Morris (or his associates) and the craftsman tradition of Ernest Gimson and other co-workers in the Cotswolds.

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Overview

This "appendix" expands on the bridge from the 19th century Arts and Crafts (and Art Nouveau) movements in Britain to the early 20th-century Arts and Crafts movement in America. Read more here.

Until I discovered the 1905 The English House, a 3-volume set, by the German, Hermann Muthesius, I wasn't sufficiently sensitive to how, in America, the taste for Arts and Crafts architecture and design was shaped.

As the Arts and Crafts movement matured in Britain -- by turning its attention on the middle-class home -- it achieved a greater sense of domestic grace and coherence. Part of its achieving grace and coherence emerged out of the dropping of the overbearing Gothic symbolism, giving way to a more manageable conception of domestic pleasures.

Inspired by a sheltering visage of the cottage and the farmhouse, the Arts and Crafts house started to symbolize warmth and protection, informality and welcome. Rural traditions, vernacular architecture, local materials — these were the elements employed by British architect-designers such as A. H. Mackmurdo, C. F. A. Voysey, M H Baillie-Scott, and C. R. Mackintosh, and others.

The goal: to place a building within its specific landscape and to enhance the ornamental role of structural elements, and to achieve the goal, rough-cast stucco, tile-hanging, shingles, half-timbering, pat­terned brickwork, and mullioned and leaded windows were all used. Moreover, these designers did not limit themselves simply to the "house", but envisaged their role from a broader perspective, a perspective that included the interior and it furnishings, and thus could be said to be designing "homes", not simply houses, a theme that among the four architect-designers, at least Baillie-Scott, for one, argued.

from comino These ideas and practices -- the architect seeing his role broadened beyond simply house design, to also embrace interior design and furniture -- trace back in the 19th century. The Gothic Revival architects in the mid-nineteenth century played an important role in the establishment and widespread acceptance of the Gothic style, and of a new approach to furniture design.

The ideas struck by these British architect-designers were absorbed by Frank Lloyd Wright, and Greene and Greene in America, or Eliel Saarinen in Finland. (For our narrative, it was the creative drive of these four that had such a forceful and lasting impact upon Gustav Stickley and/or Stickley's designer associates.)

I was informed by Rodel and Binzen's Taunton Press Book

Only then -- belatedly -- did the masterful account -- laid out in text and colored images -- of the Arts and Crafts "movements" -- both yesterday and today -- by Kevin P. Rodel and Jonathon Binzen in their Arts and Crafts Furniture: From Classic to Contemporary -- begin to have an impact. The forces from which these ideals materialized in Britain were provided largely by architects. But along with Rodel and Binzen -- who don't document their sources -- major biographies by James Kornwolf on the British architect-designer, M H Baillie-Scott, Wendy Mitchmough on the British architect-designer, C F A Voysey, and David Cathers, on Gustav Stickley, chronicle and document the fertile fields in Britain that Gustav Stickley and other American furniture designers and manufacturers exploited for ideas in the 1890s and 1910s. The accounts of Voysey and Baillie-Scott's contributions -- especially on furniture design -- are discussed below; Cathers' narrative of how Voysey and his contemporaries are discussed here

First Venacular Architecture Which Include Specially-Designed Furniture is Philip Webb's 1859 Red House for William Morris

[image on p 31 of pevsner, 1949; image of interior on page 98 of anscombe, 1991] Philip Webb's Red House – built in 1859 for William Morris and specifically designed to create an environment for a modern family – is the first house to break with the neo-gothicism of the nineteenth century. Afterwards -- according to Isabelle Anscombe -- Webb was "never satisfied with a building until it began to look commonplace", a concept meaning that decorative elements are reserved and understated, with many built-in cupboards, sideboards and benches.

norman shaw chair 1876

A precursor to the movement, in London in the 1830s and 1840s, A.W. N. Pugin designed interior fittings and furniture expressly for his buildings. In 1859 William Morris's Red House -- designed by Philip Webb and furnished down to the last dessert fork by Morris and his circle -- elaborated on many of these same ideas. The 1879 chair -- on the left -- by the architect, Norman Shaw (1831-1912), is a link between the neo-Gothicism of early Morris (or his associates) and the craftsman tradition of Ernest Gimson and other co-workers in the Cotswolds.

Four decades later, in 1892, another "Red House" was erected, this one on the Isle of Man, which the architect, M. H. Baillie Scott, built for him­self.

But Baillie Scott's compact Red House hardly resembles Webb's home for William Morris. The interior, notes Isabelle Anscombe, clearly, shows Baillie Scott's attention to detail – look at the fireplace, plasterwork and stained-glass panels – but also, continues Anscombe, his

"informal use of space with, downstairs, panelled walls between the hall, dining-room and drawing-room which slide open to give one large area for enter­taining, and, upstairs, a top-lit, panelled gallery from which the bedrooms open out, the whole scheme making a modest house seem airy and roomy".

According to Anscombe, Baillie Scott described the home as an "enchanted realm", while the interiors exhibit "a story-book quality".

Hermann Muthesius writes:

"We seem ... to have stepped into the world of fantasy and romance of the ancient bardic poetry ... . With Baillie Scott we are among the purely northern poets among British architects."

C F A Voysey's Refinements of "Middle Class" Domestic Architecture

C F A Voysey refined the middle-class house to a basic but easeful simplicity by taking control of every element of an interior. Voysey wrote, include

"Repose, Cheerfulness, Sim­plicity.. Quietness in a storm ... Evi­dence of Protection ... and making the house a frame to its inmates."

Voysey's talent was building individual houses, set on their own grounds, with wide use of local materials and tra­ditions.

An Early "Environmental" Movement

By 1900, indeed, the Arts and Crafts movement had come to symbolize a new Uto­pianism, based on the 'rediscovery' of a supposedly lost rural past.

In a very real sense, this was an "environmental movement" that resembles much of the environmental movement that is [raging] right now, as the first decade of to the 21st century draws to a close

The British garden suburb idea spread to America [need details]

Ernest Gimson and the Barnsleys Try Realizing the Enduring Dream of the Arts and Crafts Movement: Integrating the Professional Middle Classes with Village Life

But for many craftsmen in Britian, the enduring dream of the Arts and Crafts movement remained the integration of the professional middle classes with village life, ideally through the rural craft guild. This was the motive for Ernest Gimson and Sidney Barnsley moving to Gloucestershire in 1893. Here in the Cotswolds, they thought, not only concentrate on their own ideas but also be inspired by rural life.

As an architect and designer, it was vital to Gimson not to be limited to the drawing-board, but to find firsthand experience of the materials and practical processes involved in building: this became synony­mous with the mastery of disappearing craft techniques.

In his later work especially, Barnsley took the construction of agricultural tools and wagons as a basis; the wagon-back appeared in his designs for stretchers, and he adopted chamfering (used by wheelwrights to reduce the overall weight of a wagon without loss of strength) as a form of decoration. Gimson, too, adopted chamfering both as a reflection of traditional skills and as an attractive means of softening and enhancing the edges of his furniture.

Gimson and Sidney Barnsley were joined by Sidney's brother Ernest, and they and their families all became closely involved in village life,

In America, for example, a Harvard graduate, Charles F. Lummis, championed the cause of the American Indians, and there was a vogue for such indigenous crafts as Navajo blankets and Appalachian coverlets.

By 1900 Arts and Crafts ideals had become identified with political liberalism, with the rejection of the wealth and exploi­tation of the fast-growing cities and com­mercial centres, and with an unpretentious lifestyle that espoused a programme of tra­ditional values, closeness to nature and a celebration of the mysticism of ancient myths and legends. It was — and remains — a potent mixture.

Sources: Isabelle Anscombe, Arts & Crafts Style, London: Phaidon 1991

1880s Formation of Guilds and Associations

London architects rallied together in the 1880s, founding a series of guilds and associations that culminated in the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society.

In this equation John Ruskin served as inspirational theorist. Read more here

Spinoffs of the style Ruskin and Morris inspired soon appeared, especially in England and Scotland, beginning in the 1880s among a group of idealistic and talented young architect-designers: Arthur H. Mackmurdo, Charles F. A. Voysey, M H Baillie Scott, Charles Rennie Mackintosh.

Joined by others, these architects-designers sought to elevate architecture and other forms of the decorative arts -- from plasterwork and stained glass to textiles, metalwork, and furniture -- to the level of the fine arts.

While Britain did not experience flood of manufactured Arts and Crafts furniture that inundated America, both a robust retail trade through several prominent stores and commissioned works developed to produce a distinctive style with international influence.

For signs of influence these four and other contempories, direct evidence suggests that the group had a noticeable impact upon the growth of the Modern Movement in Germany and Austria, in part from interest in the group generated by the German publication in 1905-1906 of the book by Muthesius above.

To find similar evidence of an impact in America is not as direct; instead, to the cognescenti, it is there in a more or less direct manner, but for the vast public, the evidence is much subtler, because this evidence is refracted through the prism of the nation's Arts and Crafts movement, from the late 1890s to about 1920. I try to show some of this latter evidence in the paragraphs that follow below. (I have to examine in more detail pages 344-393 of James D Kornwolf's M.H. Baillie Scott and the Arts and Crafts Movement: Pioneers of Modern Design Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972:-- Kornwolf assesses the imapact of Baillie Scott and Voysey in America).

Note: It's too bad that the 2007 translation of 3-volume set of Muthesius' The English Houseprobably won't be widely available for anyone interested in the topic that doesn't live in a large city, where this pricey edition might be available. To read and digest this set, I had to ask my library to borrow it -- all three volumes -- and it ended up coming from Houston Public Library. However, parts of the set are online here.

Origin of Britain's "Vernacular Architecture" ["Organic Architecture" equivalent?]

First, interest in the new Arts and Crafts emerged from painting: Dante Gabriel Rossetti's school was its inspiration, and its first disciples were British painters, not its architects. Why? Architects of THAT generation were above such matters; likewise, they regarded handicrafts as beneath them.(need to look at Rossetti's influence on William Morris.)

Documentation on "Vernacular Architecture":

'The style in all its forms has the merit of truthfulness; it is the outcome of our common modern wants picturesquely expressed. In its mode of working and details it is the common vernacular style in which the British workman has been apprenticed...

Source: J. J. Stevenson, "On the Recent Reaction of Taste in English Architecture", Builder, 1874, page ?


...[I]n 1904-1905, in his Das Englische Haus Hermann Muthesius set out to characterise the 'exemplary qualities of the English house'. It is a splendid picture: the Englishman 'building for himself alone', 'self-sufficient and feeling no great urge for sociability, pursuing his own interests in virtual isolation', 'hurrying up to town for the sole purpose of doing his business' and 'hastening back to the heart of his family' in rural isolation in natural surroundings. But Muthesius pointed out that the down-to-earth qualities he so admired were not based on a 'style' but on simple vernacular buildings. The vernacular, like genre painting, was not at first considered an appropriate manner for architecture.

The vernacular became the chief preoccupation of the architects working in the 1880s and 1890s, who tried to free their work from historical styles. Most of them joined the new progressive societies and guilds and their architecture came to be called 'Arts and Crafts', after the name given to the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society in 1888.

The work of these architects had certain common features. Plans and elevations became the expression of utility; a building's materials were taken from its locality, being cheaper and in harmony with its surroundings. Details were based on vernacular originals and not taken from classical pattern-books. All the architects were interested in craft and in employing plasterers, painters, carvers and sculptors to enrich a building. Ornament was based on nature.

With the Arts and Crafts Movement ... went a strong love for England and things English, and hence a return to English garden design of before the mid-eighteenth century and a liking for artisan seventeenth century classicism as well as the vernacular.

Gertrude Jekyll's definition of vernacular was

"The local tradition in building is the crystallisation of local need, material and ingenuity. When the result is so perfect, that is to say, when the adaptation of means to ends is so satisfactory that it has held good for a long time, and that no local need or influence can change it for the better; it becomes a style, and remains fixed until other conditions arise to disturb it." Gertrude Jekyll Old West Surrey, 1901, pp. 5-6.

These words well express the dedication the Arts and Crafts architects had to local traditional building.

Source:Margaret Richardson, The Craft Architects New York : Rizzoli, 1983 page 7

... English vernacular buildings[:] Philip Webb started his career in 1859 by building Red House, Bexleyheath for his friend William Morris, in a strange blend of Gothic and farmhouse.

Source: Jill Franklin, The gentleman's country house and its plan, 1835-1914 London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981, page 12.

Another Name For This Vernacular Architecture is 'Organic Architecture'

In the 20th-century, of course, Frank Lloyd Wright famously labeled this approach "organic architecture".

Historically, as concept, organic architecture traces back well into the 19th century, and maybe even centuries before, because -- as technology advances, connotatively, what is meant by organic architecture changes. For Wright, a definiton of organic architecture pivots on the machine. Edwin William Godwin, as one example of the architect-designers that emerged into the limelight in Britain during that momentous revolutionary shift from neo-Gothic to Arts and Crafts,

"saw art as a unity and claimed for the architect the right to design furniture and interior decorations" Source: Alf Boe, page 129.

As a theme that I started above, rather than designing a "house", Wright designed "homes". That is, in much like today's idiom: "a 'turn-key' operation", where it is possible to contract for a project where, when the project is completed by the contractor, the owner simply unlocks the door with a key and proceeds to begin operations -- clients of Wright contracted for a home, a home filled with furniture and appliances, all of which were planned/built by or for Wright. However, because Wright practiced architecture on the threshold of the age of mass-produced-by-machine furniture, organic architecture seemed "natural". While organic architecture could be practiced before the turn of the century, the term would not have the same resonance because all of the architect-designed furniture would -- very labor-intensively -- necessarily be built by hand. For Wright, the machine was his salvation, and he took advantage of the machine by designing houses and furniture with rectinlinear horizonital and vertical components, definitely forms that machines, rather than using hand tools, make much easier to fabricate.

The moral aesthetics of the Arts and Crafts movement are embodied in the geometry of the Robie furniture, which conveys the forthrightness of American disciples of Morris, as though rectilinearity were "the language of rectitude.

Source: Carl Schorske, "Observations on Style and Society in the Arts and Crafts Movement," Record of the Art Museum, Princeton University 34, no. 2 1975, page 42, as cited by Robert Judson Clark and Wendy Kaplan, "Arts and Crafts: Matters of Style", in Wendy Kaplan, ed., "The Art That Is Life": The Arts and Crafts Movement in America, 1875-1920 Boston: Museum of Fine Arts/Little, Brown and Company, 1987, page 78.

But organic architecture traces back further than Wright


The northern Gothic church is like a body with several members; the southern Gothic church is an accretion of beautiful atoms. The northern Gothic style corresponds to the national unity of federalized races, organized by a social hierarchy of mutually dependent classes. In the southern Gothic style we find a mirror of political diversity, independent personality, burgher-like equality, despotic will. Thus the specific qualities of Italy on her emergence from the Middle Ages may be traced by no undue exercise of the fancy in her monuments. They are emphatically the creation of citizens—of men, to use Giannotti's phrase, distinguished by alternating obedience and command, not ranked beneath a monarchy, but capable themselves of sovereign power.

What has been said of Siena is no less true of the Duomo of Orvieto. Though it seems to aim at a severer Gothic, and though the fagade is more architecturally planned, a single glance at the exterior of the edifice shows that the builders had no lively sense of the requirements of the style they used. What can be more melancholy than those blank walls, broken by small round recesses protruding from the side-chapels of the nave, those gaunt and barren angles at the east end, and those few pinnacles appended at a venture? Noting these shortcomings, we are irresistibly reminded of Horace WTalpole's achievements at Strawberry Hill. On the other hand, the interior is noble. The feeling for space possessed by the architect has expressed itself in proportions large and solemn; the area inclosed, though somewhat cold and vacuous to Northern taste, is at least impressive by its severe harmony. But the real attractions of the church are isolated details. Wherever the individual artist-mind has had occasion to emerge, there our gaze is riveted, our criticism challenged, our admiration won. The frescoes of Signorelli, the bass-reliefs of the Pisani, the statuary of Lo Scalza and Mosca, the tarsia of the choir stalls, the Alexandrine work and mosaics of the facade, the bronzes placed upon its brackets, and the wrought acanthus scrolls of its superb pilasters—these are the objects for inexhaustible wonder in the cathedral of Orvieto. On approaching a building of this type, we must abandon our conceptions of organic architecture: only the Greek and northern Gothic styles deserve that epithet. We must not seek for severe discipline and architectonic design. Instead of one presiding, all-determining idea, we must be prepared to welcome a wealth of separate beauties, wrought out by men of independent genius, whereby each part is made a masterpiece, and many diverse elements become a whole of picturesque rather than architectural impressiveness.

Source: John Addington Symonds, Renaissance in Italy: the fine arts New York: Henry Holt, 1879 page 57




THE VILLAGE OF OBERAMMERGAU.

Mountains and valleys and rivers are in league with the sun and summer — and, for that matter, with winter too — to do their best in the Bavarian Highlands. Lofty ranges, ever green at base, ever white at top, are there tied with luminous bands of meadow into knots and loops, and knots and loops again, tightening and loosening, opening and shutting in labyrinths, of which only rivers know the secret and no man can speak the charm. Villages which find place in lauds like these take rank and relation at once with the divine organic architecture already builded; seem to become a part of Nature; appear to have existed as long as the hills or the streams, and to have the same surety of continuance. How much this natural correlation may have had to do with the long, unchanging simplicities of peoples born and bred in these mountain haunts, it would be worth while to analyze. Certain it is that in all peasantry of the hill countries in Europe, there are to be seen traits of countenance and demeanor, — peculiarities of bod}", habits, customs, and beliefs which are indigenous and lasting, like plants and rocks. Mere lapse of time hardly touches them ; they have defied many centuries; only now in the mad restlessness of progress of this the nineteenth do they begin to falter. But they have excuse when Alps have come to be tunnelled and glaciers are melted and measured.

Best known of all the villages that have had the good fortune to be born in the Bavarian Highlands is Oberammergau, the town of the famous Passion Play.

Source: Helen Hunt Jackson, Glimpses of three coasts Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1887, page 384




" To my mind,..organic architecture, architecture which must necessarily grow, dates from the habitual use of the arch, which, taking into consideration its combined utility and beauty, must be pronounced to be the greatest invention of the human race.

Source: Aymer Vallance, William Morris: His Art, His Writings, and His Public Life: a Record 1897 page 260




[ILL} Source: William Richard Lethaby and Harold Swainson, The church of Sancta Sophia, Constantinople: a study of Byzantine building‎ London: Macmillan, 1894, pages 247, 304.




Henry R. Hope, "[review of ? ]" The Art Bulletin 25, No. 2 June, 1943, pages 174-176; Robert Judson Clark and Wendy Kaplan, "Arts and Crafts: Matters of Style", in Wendy Kaplan, ed., "The Art That Is Life": The Arts and Crafts Movement in America, 1875-1920 Boston: Museum of Fine Arts/Little, Brown and Company, 1987, page 80 and following; Mark Mumford, "Form Follows Nature: The Origins of American Organic Architecture", Journal of Architectural Education 42, No. 3 Spring, 1989, pages 26-37. (Parenthetically, Robert Judson Clark's 1972 exhibition, and its subsequent "catalog" -- the exhibition that is said to be one of the factors that revived the Arts and Crafts movement in America -- The Arts and Crafts Movement in America, 1876-1916,, is strangely lacking in any assessment of the influence of Arthur H. Mackmurdo, Charles F. A. Voysey, M H Baillie Scott, Charles Rennie Mackintosh on America's movement. If there is a logical reason for what seems to be an oversight, none is mentioned in the volume cited above.




In 1861 Morris and his friends set up Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. to design and produce domestic decorative arts together with ecclesiastic stained glass. The architect Philip Webb (1831-1915), the Pre-Raphaelite artists Ford Madox Brown (1821-1893), Edward Burne-Jones (1833-98), and Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882), as well as Morris himself, all engaged in design for the firm.

Source: Noel Riley, ed. The Elements of Design, page 274.



Nearly all these architect-designers were students of Norman Shaw

These idealistic architects embraced an approach to their craft that argued that the value of a designed piece lay mainly in its execution, i.e., technically correct and and its design appropriate to the material and workmanship.

In short, the indispensable truth became that man-made objects should have a material purpose, and that -- in their construction -- workmanship be sound.

These are, basically, the underlying principles of Ruskin's theories and Morris' application of those theories into practice.

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Sources: Hermann Muthesius, The English House, in 3 vols, ed with intro by Dennis Sharp; trans by Janet Seligman and Stewart Spencer London: Frances Lincoln, 1905-1906; reprinted, 2007; Nikolaus Pevsner, Pioneers of modern design from William Morris to Walter Gropius New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1949; Gillian Naylor, The arts and crafts movement: a study of its sources, ideals, and influence on design theory Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1971; ; Isabelle Anscombe and Charlotte Gere, Arts & crafts in Britain and America‎ New York: Rizzoli, 1978; Mary Greensted, Gimson and the Barnsleys: "wonderful furniture of a commonplace kind" New York: Van Nostrand, 1980; Lionel Lambourne, Utopian craftsmen: the arts and crafts movement from the Cotswolds to Chicago Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith, 1980 ; Eileen Boris , Art and labor: Ruskin, Morris, and the craftsman ideal in America‎ Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986 Isabelle Anscomb, Arts and Crafts Style, London: Phaidon, 1991; Mary Greensted, The arts and crafts movement in the Cotswolds Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, 1993; Kitty Turgeon and Robert Rust, The Arts and Crafts Home‎ New York: Michael Friedman, 1998 ; Wendy Hitchmough,, The Arts & Crafts lifestyle and design New York: Watson-Guptil, 2000 ; David Cathers, Gustav Stickley, NY: Phaidon, 2003; ;