Chapter 1 1900 and Before - Education Programs that Support the Growth of Amateur Woodworking:--

F "Teacher Training" for Woodworking Instuctors

Under Construction 3-18-09 Much of the Text Below is Adapted from Ray Stombaugh, A Survey Of The Movements Culminating In Industrial Arts Education In Secondary Schools New YorK: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1936 (This book is not online full-text.); (Contributions To Education. No. 670), CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

"The training of special teachers of manual arts is of comparatively recent origin...."

Albert F. Siepert, 1918, page 5. See Sources

Overview for Chapter 1:8: The Evolution of Industrial Arts Programs During the 19th Century

Origins of Courses and Schools for Manual Training

Smith-Hughes Act 1917

It is significant that the first direct national aid to vocational education of secondary grade comes in war time. Those interested in the development of education as a national concern will recall that the original 1862 Morrill Act -- typifying the concern of the National Government with agricultural education -- was passed in 1862 shortly after the outbreak of the Civil War.

The duty of the Federal board under the act is to promote vocational education in coopération with the states and to administer the Federal aid granted to the states under the law.

The Smith-Hughes Act was signed bv President Wilson on Feb. 22, 1917.

The Federal Board for Vocational Education as organized under the act consists of seven members:--

the Secretary of Agriculture,
the Secretary of Labor,
the Secretary of Commerce, the Commissioner of Education,
and three citizen members representing respectively labor, agricultural, and manufacturing.

President Wilson appointed Arthur E. Holder, of Iowa, to represent Labor, Charles A. Greathouse, of Indiana, to represent Agriculture, and James P. Munroe, of Massachusetts, to represent Manufacturing, for terms of three years, two years, and one year respectively.

The Board appointed C. A. Presser as Director.

Beginning 1917-18, the Federal Government dispersed financial allotments to the states for the fiscal yea, together with the estimated total amounts for 1925-1926, the year designated for the grants to reachd the maximum amount.

The act includes the proviso that the states agree to appropriate either through the state or locally an amount equivalent to the amount received from the Federal board.


Most of the institutions that Albert F. Siepert (quoted in box on left, above) studied organized definite curricula between 1910 and 1920. "It is therefore apparent", Siepert says, speaking in 1918, "that the pioneer days are still with us".

The Massachusetts Normal Art School, established in 1873, was among the first schools in the United States to offer courses of this sort, but discontinued the training soon afterward. The Trenton (N. J.) Normal School offered certain technical courses as early as 1890, or a little later, but, Siepert continues, "it was only the man of unusual ability who would be selected as a special teacher of manual arts". About the same time, Pratt Institute [in Philadelphia] developed a combination art and manual training course. However, for courses in pedagogy, for which adequate provision was not made at Pratt Institute at that time, some of these students later went to Teachers College, Columbia University.

The first definite organization of a course to prepare special teachers of manual training was made by Teachers College in 1891. Charles A. Bennett, principal of the St. Paul (Minn.) Manual Training High School, was appointed head of the department of manual training. Under his leadership, the first course in the pedagogy of the manual arts ever given for an advanced degree. In a large measure, he planned the Macy Manual Arts Building, which became the model in arrangement and equipment for many other schools.

Albert F. Siepert, 1918, page 5. See Sources

America's Early Commitment to Popular Education

The institutions to which Siepert refers built upon a foundation of technical education that traces back to Colonial times, an era generally labeled the Manual Labor Movement. See Chapter 1:8:-- Part A The Manual Labor Movement

The historian of American education, Dr Geraldine Joncich Clifford, opens her lengthy 1976 historiographical article -- on the scholarship of the history of American education -- with a verity on how significantly pioneers in America valued education:

In The Sod-House Frontier, 1854-1890, Everett Dick (1954) began his chapter on education in the new settlements of Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas with lines from John Greenleaf Whittier:

They came to plant the common school
On distant prairie swells.

The truth of this poetry was illustrated by the zeal of settlers in founding schools, by subscription or through the constitution of a public taxing authority, frequently within days of their arrival. Schoolhouses sometimes preceded homes.

Source: Geraldine Joncich Clifford, "Education; Its History and Historiography", Review of Research in Education 4 1976, pages 210-267.

America's Commitment to Education in the Industrial Arts

From Colonial times onward, on the one hand, the principle of elementary education for everybody and free public schooling for the poor was well established. For additional background on the growth elementary education in early America, see Rush Welter, Popular Education and Democratic Thought in America New York: Columbia University Press, 1962. This book is not online for reading full-text.)

But, in America, on the other hand, industrial education was influenced to a large part by changes that occurred in Europe.

Chiefly, the State provided elementary level education. Ironically, it is the latter institution -- elementary education -- that contributed to a simpler evolution of the tradition process of industrial education, but the road was rocky and uncharted, making progress slow and hesitant. If Elementary Eduation was a "given" as a needed social institution, educational problems that remained – secondary, professional, and industrial education – were not solved in such a straight-forward consenus. Initiatives for establishing these latter mentioned insitutions of education , for lack of offical leadership, fell under the purview of voluntary groups, that is, as well as individuals, collective philanthropic and association initiatives. (I cover some of these matters in the sub-chapters of Chapter 1:8.

The following owes much to Ray Stombaugh's 1936 dissertation, Chapter I, "Introduction", pages 1-3.

Truths About the Mental Roots of Manual Training

THE New Jersey Council of Education went on record in 1888, suggesting that it might well be expected that the "means of giving instruction in manual training" would improve and develop in a manner similar to that previously experienced by other subject fields.


Manual training in the narrower sense may be defined as exercises in the use of tools commonly used in working wood and iron, together with instruction in drawing. In this sense the Kindergarten, the movement for drawing and form-study in the primary and grammar schools, the movement for better and more objective methods of teaching history, geography, number, etc., and the manual training movement, are all distinct. That they are, on the contrary, not distinct but closely related, and indeed interdependent, is the decided opinion of your Committee. This close relation and interdependence makes the narrower signification of the term manual training at this time an impossible and a wrong one, and lays the basis for the broader and more comprehensive definition. Manual Training in the latter sense is instruction in vthought- expression by means other than verbal language and gesture. It includes necessarily instruction in delineation and instruction in constructive work; whether or not the tools commonly used for working wood and iron, shall be employed for the purpose of giving a part of this instruction in constructive work in a mere incident. We are of opinion that the educational value of proper instruction in the use of tools has been fully proven; but it is not to be supposed that the means of giving instruction in manual training will not improve and develop, as text-books, maps and other school-room apparatus have improved and developed.

That delineation and construction are natural, early and simple modes of thought-expression cannot be doubted, and needs no demonstration .... That these modes of mental activity should be trained at school, where the sense-perception, the memory, the reasoning power and the verbal expression of thought are trained, also needs no demonstration. The statement must be accepted as true as soon as it is made; for the proposition that certain mental powers shall be intentionally omitted from the school-training, has not as yet found any conscious defenders, though numerous cases might be cited when men have unconciously argued in support of it. ...

Source: New Jersey Council of Education Reports, 1888, page 8.]

Nicholas Murray Butler: "The Whole is Greater Than the Sum of the Parts"

Also in 1888, in a Convocation Address, Nicholas Murray Butler expressed the opinion that there had been progress in manual training methods and that there was a greater diversity in imparting instruction in manual training than in the material imparted. (Today, we capture the sense that Butler posits by the statement, "The whole is greater than the sum of the parts." At the time, Nicholas Murray Butler was President of "College for the Training of Teachers", in the Columbia University system.)

He said:

The truth is that progress in this as in other matters goes on without our knowing it, and it is only after the lapse of considerable time that the visible effects of this progress engage out attention....

It is objected ... that manual training is not mental training, but simply the development of skill in the use of certain implements. This is bad common sense and worse psychology. Manual training is mental training through the hand and eye just as the study of history is mental training through the memory and other powers.

There is something incongruous and almost paradoxical in the fact that while education is professedly based upon psychology, and psychology has ever since [John] Locke been emphasizing the importance of the senses in the development of mental activity, nevertheless sense-training is accorded but a narrow corner in the schoolroom, and even that grudgingly.

In the later part of the 17th century, while Isaac Newton and Robert Boyle were establishing the basic foundations for the "Scientific Revolution", in his Essay on Human Understanding, (1690) John Locke (1632-1704) was expounding on the necessity for all education to train boys for practical occupations in trades or professions. "Working schools" were founded in 1697 to provide poor children with training in wool spinning and knitting. Holding such aims as the cultivation of virtue, wisdom, and manners to be as important as learning, Locke advocated a combination of physical, moral, and intellectual education. The physical or manual portion of the curriculum was especially designed to instruct students in the values of exercise, utility, and recreation. Gardening and woodworking were popular activities.

Adapted from Robert C. Andrews, Teaching Industrial Education: Principles and Practices Peoria, IL: Bennett Publishing Co, 1976. (A revision of Teaching the Industrial Arts, by emanuel e Ericson)

Industrial education is a protest against this mental oligarchy, the rule of a few faculties. It is a demand for mental democracy in which each power of mind, even the humblest, shall be permitted to occupy the place that is its due. It is truly and strictly psychological.

In view of the prevalent misconception on this point, too much stress cannot be laid upon the fact that manual training, as we use the term, is mental training.

What does it matter that the muscles of the arm and hand be well nourished and perfectly developed, that the nerves be intact and healthy, if the mind that directs, controls and uses them be wanting? What is it that models the graceful form and strikes the true blow, the muscles or the mind? Do the retina and optic nerve see, or does the mind? It is the mind that feels and fashions, and the mind that sees; the hand and the eye are the instruments that it uses.

The argument for manual training returns to this point again and again, not only because it is essential to a comprehension of what is meant by manual training, but because it furnishes the ground for the contention that manual training should be introduced into the public schools. No one with any appreciation of what our public school system is, and why it exists, would for a moment suggest that it be used to train apprentices for any trade or for all trades.

It is not the business of the public school to turn out draughtsmen, or carpenters, or metal-workers, or cooks, or seamstresses or modellers. Its aim is to send out boys and girls who are well and harmoniously trained, to take their part in life.

It is because manual training contributes to this end, that it is advocated. We will all admit, indeed I will distinctly claim, that the boy who has passed through the curriculum which includes manual training, will make a better carpenter, a better draughtsman, or a better metalworker than he who has not had the benefit of that training. But, it is also true that he will make a better lawyer, a better physician, a better clergyman, a better teacher, a better merchant -- should he elect to follow any one of those honorable callings -- and all for the same reason, namely, that he is a better equipped and more thoroughly educated man than his fellow in whose preparation manual training is not included. Therefore manual training is in accord with the aim of education....

Source: Nicholas Murray Butler, "Manual Training as an Element in Education." University of the State of New York. Twenty-Sixth Convocation, 1888. 13 p. 2]

Proposals for Teacher Training for Manual Training Teachers

Other writers have made a plea that teachers work together to devise some means and methods for teaching manual training which would insure "success" for the average teacher.

The first to make such a plea was the Director of Manual Training at Detroit, Michigan, Herman J. Trybom. in an address before the Manual Training Teachers Association of America.

In his reference to Herman J Tryborn, Stombaugh cites this item: Herman J Tryborn, "Principles Underlying Manual Training in the Upper Grammar Grades." Manual Training Teachers Association of America. Journal of Proceedings and Papers Read . . . , 1894. pages 28-33, which I can't find online; however, it looks like Tryborn expresses similar arguments about the significance of manaul trainging for mental devleloment in this 1901 address: Journal of Proceedings and Addresses, to the National Educational Association, pages 250+.

On the other hand, some writers indicate that methods have been largely influenced by tradition rather than by a thoughtful analysis of the problem. Commenting on shop practices in 1891, Charles R Richards reported that

"Unfortunately, trade methods and trade traditions have influenced the character of manual training work in schools altogether too much."

(Richards was Director of the Mechanic Art Department, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, later Professor of Manual Training, Teachers College, Columbia University.)

The box below captures some of what he said in 1891:

Means and Methods of Manual Training

Twelve years have elapsed since manual training exercises were first added [i.e., 1879] to the curriculum of an American high school for the educational purpose that we recognize to-day.

In the time since then many active minds have been at work upon the practical details of the problem, and many data have been gained from actual experience, and many principles definitely formulated; but much still remains to be done.


Unfortunately, trade methods and trade traditions have influenced the character of manual work in the schools altogether too much. Even where exercises in wood-working have been introduced into grammar school grades, enfranchisement has not been secured, and large saws and planes have been put in the hands of boys entirely unfit to handle them. Reply is made to criticism of such methods,

"Oh, we cannot do anything without the planes and saws: they are the carpenter's first tools."

Carrying out this principle consistently might bring us to the use of the axe. But we are working here for abstract ends, and dealing with the subtle problem of intellectual development; and the whole difference between success and failure may be entirely a question of methods.

There are two vital principles which should dominate every attempt to plan a course in manual training:

first, the means employed must be distinctly fitted to the capacities of the pupil, and the greatest care must be observed in grading the successive stages of the work, so that each exercise fits easily on to what has preceded, and the course progresses smoothly along the line of natural development;

second, the fitness of every exercise must be judged by the degree in which it advances disciplinary or intellectual ends, and by no other standard.

Each exercise should be such that the pupil may entirely appreciate its meaning, and with reasonable application be able to accomplish neatly and accurately. Anything beyond his powers, which can only be executed in a poor and bungling manner, will contribute none of the healthy influences of manual training, but will rather defeat them and tend to set a lower standard for all performance.

Another point which needs particular care is the relation of the shop-work to the other studies of the school..... The shop-rooms should be structurally separate, if possible, from the portion of the building containing the class-rooms, so that the noise of work, and particularly the rattle of the machinery, shall not interfere with the operations of the other school work. ...

Finally, and perhaps most important of all considerations, is the quality of the instructor. The individual nature of manual training methods or instruction renders it even more necessary than usual that the teacher be a man of considerable character. He must be able to clearly express himself; he must be conscientious and patient; and last, but not least, he must fully recognize the meaning of his work.

Source: Charles R Richards, "Means and Methods of Manual Training." A Conference on Manual Training . . . , Boston: New England Conference Educational Workers, 1891, page 103.


Fifth Session Addresses for the New England Conference Educational Workers, 1891:

On the Chicago Manual Training School, by H. H. Belfield;

On the Cambridge Manual Training School, by Professor W. S. Chaplin;

Means and Methods of Manual Training, by C. R. Richards [portions in box above];

Manual Training in Springfield, by George B. Kilbon;

Manual Exercises as an Auxiliary in the Formation of Intellectual Habits, by Daniel W. Jones;

Persistence of Convictions About Inadequcy of Training of Manual Arts Teachers

About a decade and a half later, 1907, in an address -- THE RELATION OF MANUAL TRAINING TO INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION -- to a Conference, Professor Richards articulates an ideal of teaching standards not easy to achieve. (The entire text of Richards' 1907 Address is here.)

In 1919, Alanson H. Edgerton said,

"Recent investigations clearly show that tradition, rather than present day need, still too largely determines the purpose, content and method of industrial subjects in the seventh, eighth and ninth years."

Source: Alanson H. Edgerton, "Experimental Work in Junior High School Industrial Arts." Industrial Arts Magazine 8 July 1919, pages 251

Likewise, in the same year, W E Roberts wrote,

"We are all too prone to do what we do because someone else has done it, or because it was suggested in any one of the numerous publications."

Source: W E Roberts, "Productive Work in the Industrial Arts Class." Manual Training Magazine, 21 December 1919, pages 119-121.

In 1924, William V Winslow referred to the persistence of certain older forms of manual training.

Source: William V Winslow, "Industrial Arts for High Schools" Industrial Arts Magazine 13 May 1924, page 183.

A few years later Strickler remarked that this older type of manual training based on faculty psychology still existed in many places.

Source: Fred Strickler. "The Training and Experience of 480 Industrial Arts Teachers" New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University. Published for Lincoln School of Teachers College, 1927, pages 72-81.

(Note on Faculty Psychology)

The Manual Training Movement embraced the prevailing psychology of the era, faculty psychology.

Prevalent in the 1880s, Faculty Psychology helped catapult manual training into the public schools' curriculum. Faculty psychology holds that fixed areas of the brain govern certain faculties and unless these faculties are trained, the brain cannot be fully developed. And, more worrisome, if all areas of the brain do not develop properly, the individual could become "unbalanced".

To overcome this threatened condition, educators "advocated the use of hand training to round out the education of youths and to supplement the seeming deficiencies of intellectual training".

"This early theory of learning held that the mind had certain faculties such as memory and reason which could be trained like a muscle, with proper exercise"

Sources: William Noyes, "A Review of the Field of Manual Arts." Manual Training Magazine 5 July 1904, page 181; Charles R. Richards, "Function of hand work in the school".51 Scientific American S. April 20, 1901, pages 21151-3. . "Is manual training a subject or a method of Instruction?" Education Review 27 April 1904, pages 369-74; Rex Miller and Lee H. Smalley, eds, Selected readings for Industrial Arts Bloomington, Illinois: McKnight, 1963, page 15, as cited by Susan Bartow.)

Fred Strickler also brings out the tendency of teachers to follow tradition and teach as they were taught.

Source: Fred Strickler, The Training and Experience of 480 Industrial Arts Teachers. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University. Published for Lincoln School of Teachers College, 1927. 115 p. 44-46]

The Experience of Industrial Arts Teachers

Experience is training just as truly as is schooling, which is designed to prepare one for experiences of a definite nature. Experience modifies formal preparation, adapts it to actual conditions and makes it usable. Experiences bring in new elements that broaden individual development in a way that it functions as training or preparation for new experiences.


Two types of experience may modify the training of industrial arts teachers -- trade experience and teaching experience. Trade experience may be considered a part of formal teacher-preparation for industrial arts teachers. It develops in a teacher an understanding of the origin of his subject, the relationships of his subject to everyday life and an overlearning of subject matter and technique that should free him to give the chief emphasis of his efforts to a study of the ways and means of furthering the educational growth of children who come to learn. Trade experience helps in the mastery of a subject and a certain amount of mastery is necessary for anyone who would teach.

As trade experience increases, the professional training of teachers decreases. As the professional training of teachers increases, the trade experience decreases.



Four hundred and sixteen teachers have given the range of their teaching experience from 1 to 37 years. The mean is 9-3/4 years. The numbers of each group and the group means are given in Table 9. Group I, which has spent an average of 1 to 37 years in the trades, exceeds the average teaching experience by one year, Group III is at the average, Group II nearly doubles it, and Group IV is just half the average. The supervisory and college groups are exceeded in years of service only by the teachers who were trained before 1910. In Chapter IV, on training, it was shown that supervisors and college teachers were better trained than were public school teachers. They are very near the top in point of service and at the bottom in point of trade experience. Thus we are justified in saying that two significant factors in the promotion of teachers to positions in supervision and college teaching are professional preparation and experience. Trade experience is not a significant factor.

Three hundred and ninty-five teachers gave both the years of their professional preparation and the years of their teaching experience. The relationship is shown on the regression diagram (Chart XV). The years of professional training cannot be predicted from the years of teaching experience. Those having 3 years of professional training may have anywhere from I to 25 years of teaching experience. The average number of years of teaching experience of persons having one year of professional training is 872; for persons of two years of professional training. 8g, etc. It may be expected that each year of professional training, from 2 years to 5 years, will increase the average service of people so trained by two-thirds of a year. There is an unreliable indication that each year's professional preparation, from 5 to 7 years, will increase the average service three years. The group of teachers of 23 years' teaching experience and upwards have less professional training than the teachers of a few years' less experience, immediately preceding them.

Teacher-training institutions may expect teachers trained by them eventually to become widely distributed and cannot gauge their programs upon the numbers of teachers needed year by year in their immediate localities. A tabulation shows that 45 per cent of the teachers cooperating in this study are not teaching in the states in which they received their high school training. A great many are not teaching in cities located near the colleges where they received their training. Initial placement by an institution and subsequent changes of position scatter teachers everywhere. Industrial arts teachers are not a particularly mobile group, and it would seem that they are very stable since the mean number of different positions (different systems) for the 429 teachers is 2.14. It would seem that, in general, opportunities for teachers to upgrade themselves by changing positions would account for or cause more changes of positions than this. The average numbers of positions in different systems for supervisors is 2Y2 and for college teachers 372. There is therefore a marked tendency for teachers to remain in positions in cities of 5,000 population, upwards. Changes of school systems are necessary for teachers aspiring to supervision or college teaching. Of the 48o teachers studied, 204 have had all their teaching experience in one school system, 129 have worked in two school systems, 70 in three systems, 44 in four systems, 22 in five systems, 8 in six systems, 2 in seven systems and only 1 in eight systems.



: Fred Strickler, The Training and Experience of 480 Industrial Arts Teachers. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers Col­lege, Columbia University. Published for Lincoln School of Teachers College, 1927.

Proffitt (1925) stated that "Past practices and procedures are still too influential in determining content and aims of instruction."

Source: Maris Marion Proffitt,"Industrial Education" U. S. Bureau of Education, Bulletin, 1925, No. 37. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1926, page 12.

Although following the line of least resistance may be pleasant to some teachers, Bowman implies that teaching, if it is to be successful, cannot be static, and further states that it is the teacher's responsibility to keep himself professionally up-to-date. [52. BOWMAN, CLYDE A: "Industrial Education and Change." Indus-trial Arts and Vocational Education, XXII : 223-227, July 1933. 232]

Keeping "professionally up-to-date" now seems to impel the teacher to engage in some individual research project as evidence of his alertness. With the present-day tendencies toward large classes and heavy schedules [106. RowLEY, BURTON H. "Current Practice in Organizing Industrial Arts Instruction." Industrial Education Magazine, XXXIV : 34, August 1932. 34] he is carrying heavy enough burdens without the additional load of research in his specific field, although a limited amount would undoubtedly prove valuable to him. Randolph suggests a way out of the problem. According to his belief, much criticism of educational methods could be elimi­nated and better teaching result: "If for every subject of study a reliable history of the development of its teaching practices id of the determining conditions underlying them were available, the enduring complaint about the recrudescence of unworkable practices might pass, -- and renewable proposals of practices that in the past proved unworkable would arise only on the basis of convincing expositions of substantially changed conditions." [38. RANDOLPH, EDGAR D. The Professional Treatment of Subject Mat-ter. Baltimore: Warwick and York, Inc., 1924. 204 p. 47]

A similar idea was expressed by De Garmo in 1887, when he said that the teacher of subject matter "should present a historical view of his subject in regard to methods, as the best safeguard against a mechanical and slavish copying of educational devices. . . ." [147 147. DE GARMO, CHARLES. "The German System of Normal Schools." N.E.A. . . . Proceedings and Addresses . . . , 1887. pp. 484-492.: 4911]. Six years later, Kirkland, in referring to the sentiments of some of the best educational authorities of the time, said, "They consider that in teaching a subject due attention should be given to its rise and development as a factor in education; that a historical view of the subject should be given in regard to methods, as the best safe-guard against a slavish copying of educational devices. . . ." [160. KIRKLAND, THOMAS. "Gradation of Normal and Training Schools." N.E.A. . . . Proceedings and Addresses . . . , 1893. pp. 410-411.410]

II2. SIEPERT, ALBERT J. "The Emergency in Education and the Teachers of Shop Work and Drafting." Industrial Education Magazine, XXXVI : 140-142, May 1934.

Sources: Otto Salomon Teacher's Handbook of Sloyd 1891; Anchor contentAlbert F. Siepert, "Courses of study for the preparation of teachers of manual arts" Washington, DC: Dept. of the Interior, 1918, page 5 (United States Bureau of Education, Bulletin no. 37.) 30 pages; Paul E. Klein, "Fifty Years of Woodworking in the Ameican Schools", The Industrial Arts Magazine 16, no. 1, January 1927, pages 1-5;

1927: Mays, Arthur B. The Problem of Industrial Education New York: Century, 1927. 418 p.

; Verne C. Fryklund, "Instruction Sheets and Principles of Teaching," Industrial Arts Magazine 16, no. 2 February 1927, pages 41-44; Ray Stombaugh, A Survey Of The Movements Culminating In Industrial Arts Education In Secondary Schools New YorK: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1936 (This book is not online full-text.); (Contributions To Education. No. 670), pages 90-102; Charles Bennett, History of Manual and Industrial Education, vol. 2, 1870 to 1917, Peoria, IL, 1937, pages 53-105; Parts 1 and 2 of Lawerence A Cremin, The Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education, 1876-1957 New York: Knopf, 1962 (This book is not online full-text.); and also by Cremin, "Progressive School Movements", Chapter 5 in American Education: The Metropolitan Experience, 1876-1980 New York: Harper and Row, 1988, pages 212-272 (This book is not online full-text.); see also this UNESCO source by Hans Thorbjörnsson, originally published in Prospects: the Quarterly Review of Comparative Education (Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), vol. XXIV, no. 3/4, 1994, p. 471-485. .