Chapter 4: 1921-1930: 4:5 Technological developmentBack to Chapter 4
This subsection of Chapter 4, technological development, is too large for treatment within the scope of a single online webpage. Therefore, I intend upon adding in the near future the following appendices, with extended treatment of the origin and impact of each tool. In the meantime, I invite you to follow-up on the links given below. In adddition, as the bottom of this over-large page are images of some portable electric tools -- looking much like we know them today -- that some manufacturers placed on the market for woodworkers, including amateur woodworkers. More work is needed, however, largely uncovering what reception these tools had, that is, "what was their impact?"
Appendix #: J D Wallace Jointer
Appendix #: J D Wallace Table Saws
Appendix #: Skilsaw (Portable Electric Handsaw)
Appendix #: Delta Scroll Saw
Appendix #: Delta Handishop -- but see this
Appendix #: Radial Arm Saw
Appendix #: Ray L Carter and Hand-Held Router
Alternating current (AC) is standard, except in a few localities. Writing in 1952, the mechanical engineer, Judson Mansfield , argues that
The 60-cycle current permits motor speeds of 3600 rpm maximum and multiples thereof ranging through 600, 900, 1200, and 1800 rpm. These speeds are theoretical and when the motor is loaded usually drop 3 or 4 per cent. The 3600-rpm motors therefore actually run about 3450 to 3500 rpm when fully loaded.
Source: Judson Mansfield, "Woodworking Machinery: History of Development from 1852—1952", Mechanical Engineering: The Journal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Dec 1952, page 993.
Document 30 Founding of Baldor Motors
Document 38 includes info that the electrical power industry promoted the use of electricity by distributing appliances to customers. My assumption -- that among these appliances would be clothes washers and refrigerators -- or, appliances powered by fractional horsepower motors. I am investigating whether my assumption are credible, and that this distribution policy by GE and Westinghouse
* General Electric: Fractional Horse Power Motors
* Westinghouse: Fractional Horse Power Motors
Power Tools in the Home Shop:
What evidence exists for motorized woodworking tools penetrating into home workshops? The evidence is considerable, and it is something I will be working on. For example, it is obvious that both interest by amateur woodworkers and encouragement from Industrial Arts instructors are factors to be considered. Popular Mechanic's ShopNotes -- published annually from 1900 to 1930 -- has numerous examples of motorizing tools in home workshops -- click here for an example --; and the materails designed for student particpants in the home workshop movement being promoted by IA instructors includes the component: "what power tools do you have in your home workshop?" [This is a theme that I will work on soon - 7-20-07)
Slowly, woodworker's manuals -- e.g., the last chapter of Charles G. Wheeler's 1924 Woodworking: A Handbook for Beginners in Home and School, Treating Tools and Operations, pages 272 to 339 -- focus on power tools in the home shop and the power tools demonstrated are from industry, not the home shop.
(My claim is based on the following evidence: for the table saw, for example, Wheeler's "drawings" -- see inset in image of the No. 8 Saw below -- resemble the J D Wallace # 8 "motor-driven" "socket-driven" table saw -- "direct-drive", no belts -- with the tilting arbor. In the 1920s, only J D Wallace had a table saw with a tilting arbor. And the drawing for the jointer actually features the J D Wallace logo.)
A truly remarkable work, especially as a project conducted by one person. Obviously part of the "homeworkshop movement" taking place in the 1920s, Wheeler dedicates this book "to the Boy Scouts of America, from one of the advisors to the 'National Court of Honor'." [look up NCH] Further, in the sense that the book demonstrates what a single person can achieve, when this project is compared to the two-volume set by Paul Woolley -- two years later, and Chelsea Fraser's The Boy's Busy Book in 1927 -- we begin to see a body of knowledge accumulating in behalf of the homeworkshop movement....@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@These are my words above, part of a description of the origin and impact of Wheeler's Woodworking: A Handbook for Beginners in Home and School, Treating Tools and Operations as one of numerous woodworker's manuals published between 1921 and 1930. Read more
The tan inset in the image above -- also depicting the "Wallace No. Portable Universal Saw" -- comes from the the Charles G Wheeler 1924 Woodworking: A Handbook for Beginners in Home and School, Treating Tools and Operations. Wheeler is interesting, because his manual is dedicated "To the Boy Scouts of America From One of the Advisors to the National Court of Honour". For the era, Wheeler is evidently one of the first manual authors to have a section dedicated to the new, scaled-down electrically-driven woodworker machines, unusual, I think, because, in general, Industrial Arts instructors held that power machines are too dangerous for use by youths in unsupervised settings.
Below, in the boxed text, are the opening paragraphs for Wheeler's introduction of power woodworking machines, in his 1924 Woodworking: A Handbook for Beginners in Home and School, Treating Tools and Operations:
COMMON WOODWORKING MACHINES AND THEIR USES
582. All who work in wood, even if they do not use machinery themselves, should be familiar with the general principles on which the machines work, should know what they can do, and how to avoid injury from them.The beginner should learn under the supervision of an experienced operator. Each machine should be kept in good order, properly adjusted and lubricated, and the cutting-edges sharp. Also, while using a machine, the operator should attend strictly to what he is doing. This can not be impressed too strongly upon him, or upon others who might distract his attention.
There are now so many designs and arrangements for each kind of machine, and the progress of invention is so rapid, that no book can include all the latest developments, for there is as yet no last word on the subject of machinery. Therefore the special study of such machines as are in use in each work-shop should be made from the machines themselves.583. The most important machines for general wood-working are the Circular-saw, Band-saw, Planer, Jointer, Moulder, Boring-machine, Sanding-machine, Mortising-machine, Tenoning-machine, Jig-saw, Turning-lathe, Scraping-machine, Spraying-machine, and Rubbing-machine. There are many others for special purposes, and others which automatically perform several operations at once. Combination machines often save expense and space, and are useful in a small shop; but if used by many persons time is wasted in changing the adjustments and in waiting for one's turn -- separate machines with independent motors are best. Machines should be securely bolted to a firm foundation, and be free from vibration.
584. There is an element of danger in all machines, and even in the use of the common hand tools, but the scroll-saw, lathe, band-saw, and sander are safe machines if used with reasonable care. The others (and the band-saw also) should be used only with proper safe guards. The presence of the guards also keeps in the operator's mind the fact that there is danger to be avoided. Not only the cutting parts, but belts, gears, shafting, pulleys, sprockets, etc., should be guarded. Those who are careful use woodworking machines constantly without injury. Those who are careless are likely to be seriously hurt; and every beginner should be carefully coached in regard to the peculiar dangers of each machine.' With machines having fences or gauges for guiding the work, the "joint-edge," or "face-side," (27, 72) of the wood is kept against the fence or gauge. The Swing cut-off saw (or the bench-saw) is usually the first machine used, to cut the pieces roughly to length. The Jointer next makes joint edges and face-sides; the Circular-saw cuts to accurate dimensions, allowing for any necessary planing or smoothing; the Jointer, Scraper, Sanding-machines, etc., smooth the parts; Spraying and Rubbing-machines finish the work.
Don't be fooled by the "school" in this book's title, nor that it is dedicated to the "Boy Scouts of America". Wheeler's "manual" continues the tradition that Wheeler began in 1900. [links coming]
Pivotal in this context of course, is the rapidity in which electrification spread, first in the cities -- circa 1915 to 1930 -- with electrification following in 1930 in rural areas (more to come on electrification)
(Just for fun, I counted the number of electric motors in my personal workshop. In stationary tools, I know its over 15 -- one unit, a combo power tool, contains 3 electric motors, while each of the numerous portable tools, including cordless -- drills, sanders, biscuit joiner, several saws, grinder -- all, taken together, help argue that, for the woodworker, the fractional horse-power motor has had a major impact.)
The decade, 1921-1930, is pivotal to amateur woodworking, because -- following closely the introduction of a marketable small-scale electric motor -- it is in that decade that the early models of scaled-down woodworking power tools first were brought into the marketplace.
Naturally this question arises: Among Wheeler's audience, Boy Scouts, what boys in the 1920s could afford such tools for their home shops?A 1928 article in THE WOOD-WORKER by the mechanical engineer, John Shaw, "Portable Electrically-driven Machines", for example, extols the utility of "socket-driven" portable tools in the shops of furniture manufacturers. The "teaser" for Shaw's article is in the gray shaded box directly below:
The small "socket-driven" machines and tools now in use in wood-working factories, make possible the accomplishment, with accuracy and dispatch, of many tasks which heretofore have been done by hand.Manufacturers of power machinery for the home woodworker's shop include Boice-Crane, Delta, J D Wallace, Walker-Turner, and Sears continued distributing power tools under its label.
For example, with justifiable pride, the 1926 J D Wallace Power Machine catalog trumpets its 1/2 HP 8-inch tilting-arbor "socket-driven" bench saw.
In submitting his patent (patent # 1,528,535 ) for the saw in 1925, Ray Dewalt did not use the term "radial", but instead "rotatable". As a label radial did not appear until ? What if more Interesting about the appearance of the radial arm saw in the 1920s is that evidently it wasn't seen as a "tilting arbor" circular saw. For "first" tilting arbor saw patent, see boice, 1931.Patents held by Ray Dewalt:
The links below lead to images and the pdf text of Dewalt Radial Arm Saws in 1925 posted on the Old Woodworking Machines websiteSaw CW #4351 16 inch March 3, 1925 wonderworker
com/PhotoIndex/ detail.asp? id=6084
1925 DeWalt catalog with Wonder Worker and many accessories
com/MfgIndex/ PubDetail. asp?ID=252& PubID=2123
Generally recognized as the leading champion of the radial arm saw, specifically the Dewalt radial arm saw, Wallace Kunkel, extols the usefulness of radial arm saws in his 1997 ring-bound book, How to Master the Radial Saw.
Click on the link below for the Patent record on DatAmp:http://www.datamp.org/displayPatent.php?number=210100
From page 3, of the "DeWalt Woodworking Machinery" catalog for the mid-1920s.
(No date is given about year of publication.)
Prior to designing the machines now known as DeWalt Wood-workers, Mr. R. E. DeWalt had followed his father's footsteps by holding mill and construction positions from the time he left school. Always the questions of high labor costs had been dinned in his ears. To cut down these costs, every once in a while he rigged up some machine.
Finally, Mr.. DeWalt was offered a position as head of a wood-working mill where almost everything from boxes to full-fledged houses were involved. There was more to do than could be done. The President of the company would not allow an increase in pay-roll, so he simply had to get more work out of the men available. To do this, Mr. Dewalt designed a yoke and attached it directly to a motor and saw, then mounted it on a standard and arm, so the saw could be raised, lowered, slid back and forth, moved to any angle, or tilted to any bevel. It actually did the work of four men.
This one machine had cut costs beyond his fondest dreams, and today it is a constant reminder that there is no machine made, anything like its size and simplicity, that by attaching its cord into an ordinary light socket will approach the results obtained with a DeWalt.
Notwithstanding all a DeWalt Woodworker does, two men can pick it up and carry it about, set it up in a jiffy, and make the problems every woodworker meets seem ordinary and easily overcome.
Furthermore, the DeWalt will solve one problem just as easily as another, and frequently better than big complicated machines made to do any one operation. That is why Mr. DeWalt says : "It will accomplish much bigger results than you thought it would. You buy a machine, and what you really get is satisfaction, entire satisfaction."From Wallace Kunkel’s How to Master the Radial Arm Saw:
What follows is (for the time being) "interpreted" from Wally Kunkel's account of the history of the Radial Arm Saw. Kunkel claims to have met Ray Dewalt in 1948, and -- from the sketchiness of the account, I guess, is where Kunkel came to learn how the RAS evolved in the 1920s.
(My research to date suggests that not much research has been conducted on RAS history. A search of the huge newspaper database for "Ray Dewalt" and "RAS" comes up "dry" for all decades before the 1940s. And all articles on the RAS in the newspaper archive for the nineteen forties fail to include personal information on Ray Dewalt.)
Kunkel: "World War I veterans had come home from 'over there' - and they needed houses!"
In the 1920s, according to Kunkel,
The construction industry was badly in need of faster methods for cutting framing members. The cabinet industry needed "idiot-proof' methods for precise cutting — to get professional results from less costly "hired help". New materials were being developed— requiring new techniques for "special cutting".
What was needed was a new kind of 20th-Century saw — and a fellow in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, was ready!
An industrial-arts teacher, Raymond DeWalt was already producing radial-arm machines in a three-car garage. Simple, sturdy, contrivances of utilitarian design with five-horsepower motor.
sThey would cross-cut and make a flat miter — but the motor did not tilt for bevel cuts or compound miters. The only bearings were in the motor. The motor travelled on a length of heavy, greased, steel bar-stock. It sat on a wooden base.
It's name: "The DeWalt Wonder Woodworker"
Whether Raymond knew it or not, the doors of the Construction Industry were wide open — and he walked through. Better yet, he took a train! He left his manufacturing in capable hands and headed out for Florida where there was a surging land boom.
As the story goes, he never got there! Instead, he met some of the "right people" in the dining-car and sold a train-car-load of his "Wonder Woodworkers" without ever setting foot in Florida.
Thus, the beginning of a great story of innovation and entrepreneurship.
From the 1920s, to the present day, wherever builders could set up for gang-cutting operations on-site or pre-cutting operations off-site, the Dewalt has been an amazing performer.
My introduction to this sort of thing was in 1948. Mr. DeWalt was still around the plant and his brother was still "keeping the books." Numerous patents issued for scaled down power woodworking tools. For example, check out: Appendix 18: On the Origin of the Radial Arm Saw
Source: Wally Kunkel, How to Master the Radial Saw. pages 3 - 4.
From Dewalt webpage -- information in conflict with Kunkel's
Raymond E. DeWalt followed in his father's footsteps by holding mill and constructions jobs from the time he left school. No matter what the job, the question of high labor costs always concerned him. To help cut these costs, occasionally he rigged up a machine to meet some special need.
Eventually, Mr. DeWalt was offered a position as head of a woodworking mill that manufactured almost everything from boxes to full-fledged houses. There was more to do than could be done, and the President of the company would not allow an increase in payroll. He simply had to get more work out of his men. Mr. DeWalt designed a yoke and attached it directly to a motor and saw, then mounted it on a standard arm. The saw could be raised, lowered, slid back and forth, moved to any angle, or tilted to any bevel. It did the work of four men and cut his labor costs beyond his fondest dreams.
1922 Raymond E. DeWalt, then superintendent of Seabrook Farms, perfects the first radial arm machine for the purpose of providing more versatility in woodworking operations.
1924 DeWalt Products Company is formed with plant and offices located in Leola, Pennsylvania. Their product is an electric universal woodworking machine known as the DeWalt "Wonder-Worker."
1929 DeWalt Products Co. moves to a new, and for those days, outstandingly modern plant and office building in Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Ray L Carter and the Invention of the High Speed Hand-Held RouterSee also Glossary R -- Router Annex
[need to check on J. E.Hyler, "Twist-turning with a portable router," Popular Mechanics 53 (May 1930) page 872; later in 2007, around December, Tony Bradley's biographical account of Ray L Carter will be out, and with it, I will add more info on this important event in the history of the amateur woodworking movement.]According to R J Cristoforo,
The history of the router goes back to World War I, its invention generally credited to R. L. Carter, a pattern maker who designed a cutter from the worm gear of an electric barber's clipper and secured it to the shah of an electric motor. The efficiency of the "Electric Hand Shaper" was quickly noticed and Carter found himself producing thou-sands of the units for sale. In the late 1920s, Stanley acquired the Carter business and produced the first "mod-ern" router, not especially for me, of course.
There's little point to touting the virtues of the portable router because, "Is there a woodworker with a soul so dead he never to himself has said, 'I love my router' The mechanics of the router haven't changed but improvements continue to make it an ex-citing tool, especially the plunge feature.
Source: R J DeCristoforo, The Jigs and Fixtures Bible: Tips, Tricks and Techniques for Better Woodworking Cincinnati: Popular Woodworking Books, 2001, page 17. First published in PW, April 2000
A search of the books in Google Print shows only one hit, and that very obscure. The "hit" is the magazine, Industrial Education, on page 32, but the date is not given, although from the evidence of the "snippet", view, it is the 1920s. In the smippet from Industrial Education, the label for the "router" is Carter Hand Shaper. CHS is the name given in "tools for sale" sections of 1930s newspapers, suggesting that the popular name for this first router is "Carter Hand Shaper".
None of the evidence, undocumented, given above by DeCristoforo is available, telling us that his evidence is not readily available. [In the near future I will addd additonal evidence from a book on routers by Patrick Spielman.]
Equally unusual is that the 1927 Stanley Tools corporate woodworker's manual, How to Work with Tools and Wood -- discussed briefly in Appendix 14 -- mentions only hand tools, and definitely does not mentionthe Stanley-Carter Router. What this leads me to think is that the Stanely-Carter Router was considered a tool almost exclusively in the professional woodworker's domain, and outside the immediate concern of the amateur woodworker.
(Thanks to Keith Rucker, at OWWM, I found data on the Carter Hand Shaper in DATAMP.ORG.) The image immedately below is the image posted by Carter in his patent application, while the box below that is the text of the first few paragraphs -- sort of a "preamble" -- of Carter's patent application. As well as the images, the application includes 2 pages of very dense text whic describes in tortuous detail how the device works:
Patented Oct 24, 1922. 1,433,497
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
Ray L. Carter, of Syracuse, New York
Shaping DeviceApplication filed April 17, 1922. Serial no 558, 639To all whom it may concern:Be it known that I, Ray L Carter, a citizen of the United States, residing at Syracuse, in the county of Onondaga and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in shaping Devices, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to shapers, designed for use by. pattern-makers, cabinet-makers, carpenters and the like, and has for its object. to provide a novel and simple device of the class for rounding and bending the corners of patterns and various other wooden articles. A further object is to provide a light, easily portable shaper, consisting of a hollow casing which encloses a high-speed electric motor, on the armature shaft of which may be mounted rotary cutters of various types, by which the corners and edges of wooden articles may be given different shapes, in a ready and quick manner. A further object is to provide a relatively small and light shaper of the class, which may be held and operated by one hand, said device being equipped with a conical head by which the device is guided and being provided with novel adjusting means for taking up looseness, as well as for facilitating the employment of cutting tools of different size.
I attain these objects by the means set forth in thedetailed description which follows and as illustrated by the accompanying drawings:
Did Routers Start Out as Stationary Machines?
"The modern router", claims Anthony Bailey, Routing For Beginners, 1999, page 4, "descended for the fixed-head machines". With this claim, I think that Bailey is, in the idiom of today, "onto something", although in his book he doesn't elaborate on the point. Nonetheless, his statement stimulates our thinking on the matter, especially when you consider the Workace "shaper" introduced in 1929 by the J D Wallace Company.
"Smoking-gun" evidence about the truth of Bailey's claim is available, but -- without more evidence -- I hold back about drawing any firm conclusions.
Below, for example, is a digitized reprinting of the page from the 1932 J D Wallace Woodworking Tools catalog. But, strangely, this shaper is not in the 1933 J D Wallace catalog.
Thousands of Workace Electric Shapers are in service -- in large plants and small shops-schools and hobby shops, maintenance departments, pattern and cabinet shops and furniture repair departments, etc.
In the large plants the Workace Electric Shaper supplements the larger equipment -- handles all the lighter work and short runs at an enormous saving in set up time, power and in-vestment. It is portable, can be taken to a job -- saves steps.
Operates off light circuit, can be economically run at any time independently of the other plant equipment -- that is a decided advantage in equipment of the Wallace and Workace type.
The capacity of the Workace Electric Shaper, the speed and precision with which it operates, the small investment and low operating and maintenance cost, places the small shop, pattern shop or cabinet shop, furniture repair departments. schools and hobby shops in a position to do all kinds of shaping efficiently and economically, to handle long runs or short runs, specials and repairs; any type of moulding, grooving, beading, shaping and tenoning.
The Workace Electric Shaper comes complete as illustrated above including two steel shaper collars 2" dia., 3/8" thick bevel grooved for knives; four spacing collars 1/3" thick; locking pin. 10 ft. lamp cord and separable plug.
Motor to operate on 110 or 220 volts DC and AC, 25 to 60 cycle, single phase, or 220 volts, AC. 120 cycle, three phase (7200 RPM) 1 HP., or 220 volts, AC.. 180 cycle three phase, 1 HP. (10,800 RPM).
Set ups for any shape are quickly made on the Workace Electric Shaper. To facilitate short runs we have worked out a set of cutters in Nos. 2757, 2758 and 2759 which, in various combinations, make it possible to cut practically any shape. Knives and solid cutters, of course, are avail-able for long runs or shapes often made up.
The Workace Electric Shaper operates from the electric lighting circuit, also available for 120 or 180 cycle, three phase. It is direct motor driven-direct, positive, powerful and economical drive; no belts to dissipate power. High speed, 10,000 R.P.M. (no load speed). Works with or against the grain; portable, easily taken to the job, saves steps. Precision ball bearing, air cooled.
We will gladly submit the Workace Shaper to you so that you may try not what we claim to be the biggest value in woodworking equipment -- a high speed, powerful, accurate tool at a very modest price -- the Workace Electric Shaper.
Three or four wing cutters for cuts used frequently, saves set-up time, quotation on request. Knives are available in shapes shown on opposite page. For quick set up on short runs of various shapes we suggest cutters Nos. 2757, 2758 and 2759 illustrated on opposite page. Guard No. 2714 and Fence No. 2713. These items are optional and available at a small extra cost.
Source: J D Wallace Woodworking Tools Catalog 1932
Below, the shaded box reprints the brief piece by the editor of Industrial Arts Magazine, suggesting that the Wallace high-speed shaper was introduced in 1929.
NEW WORKACE ELECTRIC SHAPER
The J. D. Wallace Company, 134 So. California Ave., Chicago, Ill., has announced a new Workace electric shaper, something entirely new in the popular priced and portable line of shapers.
The Workace shaper is equipped with ball bearings. It is motor driven, and adequate means for lubrication are provided. In this machine, the belt has been eliminated, thus slipping, slowing down of operations, and loss of power is avoided. The shaper is mounted on a table with a screw arrangement, which permits it to be raised or lowered. It can be locked securely in any position by a handwheel. The spindle is a steel shaft 5/8 in. in diameter, which extends 3 5/8 in. above the table top, and provides a capacity of 2 1/2 in. between two steel shaper collars, or 3 1/4 in. when using solid cutters. The machine is provided with a General Electric Universal motor, which can be used on an ordinary lighting circuit, 110 or 220 volts, d.c., or 25 to 60 cycle a.c. It weighs only 42 pounds and stands firmly on its own base without fastening.
Source: Industrial Arts Magazine 18 September 1929, page 31A
With the text and image of the J D Wallace Workace shaper (above), including its direct-drive universal motor and 47 pounds, we have the ideal setting for another breakthrough in the development of the hand-held high-speed router.
However, until I find more conclusive evidence, I remain skeptical. I think that perhaps the speed of the spindle rotation -- 13,000 rpm -- was too fast for the cutters that existed in the late 1920s.
(Normally, spindles on shapers operated by amateur woodworkers rotate at two speeds -- governed by the two-stage pulleys on the spindle's end, below the shaper's table surface, that are belted to the motor. Operating the machine at higher speeds -- especially with larger diameter cutters, raises the danger of the machine causing problems, including injury to the operator.)>Sources: Herman Hjorth, “The Router”, Home Craftsman 18 1949, pages 56-57; Robert Campbell and N H Mager, eds. How to Work with Tools and Wood,
1955, pages 312-315 (Campbell and Mager's manual first was issued by Stanley Tools in 1952; PW, April 2000); for background and documentation on the impact of electrification of the kitchen, see Loretta Lorance, Promises, Promises: The Allure of Household Appliances in the 1920s New York: Pocket Books,
Portable Tools Come on the Scene
Stanley Ad: "Tools For Every School Shop"
The image above is one-half of the two-page advertisment that Stanley Tools placed in the April 1930 issue of Industrial Arts Magazine, which tells us that Stanley visualized a market for these tools in industrial arts courses.
True, most of the tools pictured are more appropriate in metal trades, but the "worm-drive" electric saw and the hand drills have definite uses in woodworking settings. In the same issue of Industrial Arts Magazine, this brief note tell us why and how the Stanley ad was published:
ANNOUNCE NEW STANLEY ELECTRIC TOOL COMPANY
The Stanley Works, of New Britain, Conn., announces the formation of the Stanley Electric Tool Company which will manufacture and distribution of [electricaly] operated hand tools, including drills, screw drivers, bench, and aerial (sic) grinders. The recent purchase of the Unishear Company, of New York City, adds to the list of products a complete line of motor-power shears for outside and inside cutting of sheet metal. Another purchase was the Ajax Electric Hammer Corporation, of New York City, which manufactures Ajax electric hammers and bits.
New Clark Wonder Drill
The James Clark, Jr., Electric Company of Louisville, Ky., have announced a new /-in. Wonder Drill as the latest addition to their line of electrically driven tools for shop use.
The new drill, which is especially designed for use in radio and cabinet construction, is capable of drilling holes up to and including 1/4-in. The drill measures 7-1/2-in. over all, and runs at a speed of 1,200 r.p.m., when loaded.
It is compact, durable, and powerful in operation.
School-shop instructors who are interested in this new drill may obtain complete information and prices by addressing the James Clark, Jr., Electric Company, at 600 East Bergman St., Louisville. Ky.