CR 6:-- The Colonial Revival in the Industrial Arts Movement and in the Amateur Woodworking Movement
Directory to "Notes" on the Colonial Revival Movement, a Series of Six Narratives Detailing How Colonial Furniture Design Became So Popular in Amateur WoodworkingCR 1: Before 1876: The Rise of Nativism
CR 2: 1876: The Cententennial Exhibtion in Philadelphia
CR 3: After 1876: Antique Hunters
CR 4: After 1876: Books on Colonial Antiques
CR 5: The Rise of of the Material Culture Museums
CR 6: CR in the Industrial Arts Movement and Amateur Woodworking
CR 7: The Colonial Revival Today
CR 6: CR in the Industrial Arts Movement and Amateur Woodworking
Between 1920 and 1945, in the amateur woodworking movement, the choice of early American furniture designs for projects in the home workshop was part of a larger movement, since the 1870s, to bring back colonial design. This movement -- known as the Colonial Revival Movement -- is still with us.
(Before 1920 -- from 1900 until about 1916, when Gustav Stickley went bankrupt -- the Arts and Crafts style was popular. Increasingly, however, supporters of Colonial Revival -- such as Harold Donaldson Eberlein, author of number of books on the Colonial Revival -- made fun of modern design. John Freeman Crosby, a biographer of Gustav Sticley, leading figure in America's Arts and Crafts Movement, notes, for example, that"Mission had promised Americans an enduring style, but the promise had not been kept when Eberlein wrote: 'By what can we know quality in furniture? . . . The one unfailing test is that of time . . . Those that have survived changes in taste are the eternal.' With this as a rationale for an intensified historicism Eberlein and others sneered at 'Mission furniture in the dullest of oak, and leather cushions of the same hue, unrelieved by any ray of brightness, a veritable symphony of mud and mustard!"
Sources: Harold Eberlein, et. al., The Practical Book of Interior Decoration Philadelphia, 1919, pages 201 and 297; also cited by John freeman Crosby, Forgotten Rebel: Gustav Stickley and His Craftsman Mission Furniture ?: Century House, 1965, chapter 5.
The Colonial Revival activity in American domestic architecture in 1930s
(The paragraphs that follow owe much to David Gebhard, "The American Colonial Revival in the 1930s", Winterthur Portfolio, 22, No. 2/3 Summer - Autumn, 1987, pages 109-148.)
Gebhard's Take on House Style Evolution Between 1880 and 1930
David Gebhard, historian of American architectural history, uses a wide lens -- newspapers, articles in popular and shelter magazines, architectural magazines, movie sets -- to document his study of colonial revival themes in domestic architecture of the 1930s. (His 40-page article includes numerous photos and a 78-item bibliography of sources consulted.)
In 1930, writing in the shelter magazine, Country Life, the architect Claude H Miller claims that
"every community should have at least one example of a type of architecture [the colonial] that has survived for more than two hundred years and that has, today, a far greater appeal than any time in its history."
And, argues Gebhard,"indeed, the architects, builders, and clients of the depression years of the 1930S not only made sure that there was one example but also made the colonial the most prevalent and popular architectural image of the time.
Brief Chronology of Domestic Architectural Trends
In the 1880s and later,the colonial house style morphed with the English Queen Anne to produce the shingle style;
In the 1890s and on into the 1900s,the colonial house emerged in its own version of the classical beaux-arts.
In this century,
elements of a colonial house design blended into craftsman architecture and design, until finally usurping it,
the colonial house styles became one of the contending, openly romantic, period-revival styles.
By the thirties,
the colonial had already enjoyed well over half a century of revival. As a continually transformed image, it had shown a remarkable ability to shift its ground and to absorb whatever happened to be the current fashion, whether visual or ideological."
Sources: (Check out this website for example images many of these architectural styles.) of David Gebhard, "The American Colonial Revival in the 1930s", Winterthur Portfolio 22, No. 2/3 Summer-Autumn, 1987, page 109; Claude H. Miller, "Building an Early American Home," Country Life 57, no. 4 April 1930, page 41; William B. Rhoads, The Colonial Revival New York: Garland Publishing, 1977; William B. Rhoads, "The Colonial Revival and American Nationalism," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 35, no. 4 December 1976, pages 239-254; Alan Axelrod, ed., The Colonial Revival in America New York: W. W. Norton, 1985.
Another sign of the omnipresence of the colonial past, Gebhard reminds us, was the ubiquitnousness of CR in the decorative arts of the 1920s and 1930s: furniture, wallpaper, fabrics, clocks, and dollhouses, in the idiom of the day, "wall-to-wall".For Gebhard,
Colonial furniture -- reproductions and new variations on the originals -- had fully come into their own in the 1920s.
By the end of the 1930s, according to Gebhard, the two approaches (above) to colonial furniture and decoration were joined by a third: that of
"the urbane sophistication of the federal/regency and the Greek revival."And his claim -- what would in another idiom of the day be called "the kicker" -- becomes a platform for any discussion about how amateur woodworking figures into this equation.
"it was this later furniture and decoration that was seen as the closest link between traditionalism and the modern. The ability to furnish and decorate a room in the colonial made it possible for the colonial environment (usually, of course, not as a whole, but as a fragment) to be realized by an appreciable segment of the middle class who were not in a financial position to purchase even a new "spec-built" house."
"the 'misguided' taste of the late nineteenth-century, Victorian era, or, the 'ungainly' craftsman period in the early twentieth century.
"The buildings they [the movie sets] depict are not permanent to be sure, but they reach many more people with their message than do many permanent buildings, and often in a way that makes very lasting impressions. It must be gratifying to feel that one is composing pictures which, in their ultimate life-like realism, enthrall and instruct audiences of thousands the world over!"
by Hjorth, Herman
notes on homeworkshop movement
written by Gordon Bonser and Lois Mossman .. michael knoll, the project method: its vocational .. more diversified field involving the project method of presentation. To meet the
contributions to the project movement by bonser and hjorth are discussed Gordon Owen Wilber, Industrial Arts in General Education 1967
also: C:\cygwin\home\Marketrends\ericson on project method.html
project method can be divided into five phases: 1590-1765: The beginnings of project .. Project Method. Much has been said about the "project method" of teaching
In the Windows below are Hjorth's "Preface" and Frederick G Bonser's "Introduction" to Reproduction of Antique Furniture. Two years earlier, over several months of 1922, chapter-by-chapter, the text of this manual appeared as articles in Industrial Arts Magazine . Throughout this era, Bonser is a major player in industrial education, even though he was himself not a woodworker. Instead -- as I'm outline here -- he is one of the chief theorists of the project movement. For background on the project movement click here
The reasons for the attention to Hjorth's achievement as a director of a program of high school IA courses on furniture making are instantly obvious when you see images of the results:
"If we wish to keep pace with the latest and best commercially", Love argues, "we will have to look to something besides mission furniture for an inspiration."
"Why is Mission popular?"
"Most of us continue in the Mission work because we were raised on it and believe it to be much easier designed and made." Now, he says, "Why pick the easiest for our work?"
We average one talk every two weeks on some particular style and the boys make reports on the different pieces shown in the display rooms of our furniture stores. The work is outlined to require a minimum amount of reading. Most of it is done from observation and reports made from these.
For example, in the designing and construction of our work, we try to proceed the same as they do commercially. The boy chooses the particular style or period that he thinks he wants, then talks it over with the teacher. They decide whether that particular style will fit in and harmonize with the other furnishings in the room in which it is to be placed. Here he is given some idea in regard to the relation between architecture, interior decoration, and furnishing.
another major player in the colonial revival movement, Frederick R Love -- and who most likely had an impact on Hjorth's decision to move forward with publishing designs for colonial revival pieces -- published an aritcle, "Period Style Furniture For High School Work", Industrial Arts Magazine 1918 7 April 1918, pages 135-137:
While this collection does not represent the highest types, there are features in all which merit distinction. Only those which could be copied by junior and senior high-school-students have been considered. Nothing has been added to or detracted from the original measurements.
It is hoped that these drawings and illustrations will afford an inspiration for instructors and students. For reference work, Woodwork for Secondary Schools, by Ira S. Griffith, (The Manual Arts Press, Peoria, Ill.) will prove of great value.
While this book is designed for use in the schools, it need not be so confined. Its scope and practical treatment should fit it for the use of all who enjoy the pleasure of creating things of wood.
Acknowledgment is made to the magazine The House Beautiful for the use of one of the illustrations.
WINDSOR chairs were first made in England. They were very common during the Colonial days. The seats were made of pine and the backs of some kind of hardwood as ash or hickory. Quite a few furniture dealers can now furnish reproductions of the Windsor styles in mahogany with more comfortable lines and nicer finish than the older types, which makes them very desirable. The directions given below are suited for any of the Windsor chairs which are included in this series.
FREDERICK J. BRYANT.
Auburn, Maine, July 1921
Text below comes from page 36.
Make the seat first, locating the centers for the holes where the legs are to set in place on the underside.
Use wooden jigs as illustrated in Fig. 15, page 29, for boring the holes at the proper angles. Bevel the edges of the seat and hollow the top surface so that it looks and feels comfortable. Do not bore the holes through the seat unless the drawings show them that way. Turn the legs and rounds on the lathe and attach them to the seat. The rim for the fan-shaped backs can be bent on a form marked out on a work-table or on the floor. Make a full size lay-out of the shape of the back and nail small blocks every 6" apart to hold the rim in place.
Seam or soak the rim in hot water and place it in the form where it should be left for at least 36 hours. When it is thoroughly dry, remove it and fit it to the holes on the seat. Pass the ends through to the under side of the seat and split the ends open and drive in wooden wedges. Shape up the spindles with a spokeshave and bend on a form. When they are ready, bore the holes through the rim and push the spindles up through the holes. Then place glue in the holes on the seat and pull the into place. When the the projecting ends off spindles down glue is dry, cut to that they are even with the outside of the rim. Sandpaper all parts and paint the chair with two coats of black enamel. The small ridges or grooves on the legs and spindles should he colored with two or more coats of gilt or bronze paint. These finishing directions refer to the chair if pine and ash are used in its construction.
The drawings on pages 39 to 42 show Windsor chairs of varied details. The method of construction is largely the same as described above. If mahogany is used, see page 52.
Not stressed in Bryant's manual -- at least not to the extent deserved -- is the shear determination required by the junior and/or senior high school students who undertake this project. Or maybe I am being too critical. However, to get an idea of the complexities involved in Windsor chairmaking, look at the entry on Michael Dunbar's classic manual -- click here -- on Windsor chairmaking, published a half century after Bryant, in 1976.
As indicated in Chapter 4:8, a considerable enrichment in the course content has occurred both with respect to the related informational material and the shop activities.
The box below reprints a 1927 fragment from Arthur B Mays Assessment of Industrial Arts
Checking on "High School Movement" in 1920s See Defining Industrial Arts
Industrial Arts in the 1920's
By the end of the second decade of the 20th century, the concept of manual training was greatly misunderstood. Given the turmoil in the 1920s -- pressure to change manual training came from many groups, professional and non-professional.
First, manual training was largely overshadowed by the popularity of the vocational education movement. The promoters of vocational education -- rejoicing in the passage of the Smith-Hughes Act -- were anticipating legislation designed to foster vocational education programs.
Second, supporters of vocational programs were encouraged because one outcome of WW I was a stress on the importance of preparing vocationally proficient citizens. "Vocational education had an immediate purpose and, equally important, it had the financial means necessary to support this cause," Says Sredl, "Manual training, as the most popular of the manual training subjects at this time, had the remnants of a past glory."
Third, with growing compulsory education laws, no longer was a high school education reserved for youth of the privileged class.
Modern Trends. (see Source below:-
In recent years certain significant trends have appeared in the industrial arts offerings in the public schools.
[Courses have been enriched, including adding informational material such as instruction sheets, i.e., course outlines, and through the "project method", activities on the shop floor were upgraded.] With reference to the related material, there is a tendency to increase the amount of time given to library reference study, class reports, essays, lectures, use of stereopticon slides, moving pictures and factory excursions in teaching facts about the origins, transportation, preparation and transformation of raw materials in a very wide range of industries.
The shop work is constantly improving in quality and difficulty.
The tendency is to undertake projects which a few years ago would have been regarded as impossible for boys to handle.
Not only is this true, but much higher standards of workmanship are demanded of the boys than formerly.
A continuous improvement in design and finish is apparent and this is obtained, as are the other improvements in quality of work, by the use of all sorts of modern equipment and devices. The earlier shops scorned the use of machines, whereas the modern school complains if its machinery be not of the latest design, and the use of jigs and fixtures are now considered an important factor in the course.
Not only is the quality of shop work improving but the variety of shop courses is constantly increasing. For many years "Manual Training" meant wood work. To-day the industrial arts, or "Manual Arts," as it is frequently denominated, includes machine-shop work, electric wiring, auto-mechanics, house carpentry, conCrete work, furniture construction, pattern making, foundry work, printing, plumbing, "home mechanics" courses and various other types of shop work, besides a greatly enriched offering of mechanical drawing courses.
All of the courses are constantly being strengthened and enriched and the methods of instruction are steadily improving. Courses are being more carefully planned, and the instruction sheet is becoming firmly established as a teaching device. Reference books and textbooks are becoming increasingly common in the shops.
Source: Arthur B Mays, The Problem of Industrial Education New York: The Century Co., 1927, pages 206-208.
10. Two Centennials: 1876 Philadelphia Sideboard Vs 1976 Shaker Rocking Chair:-- A Study in a Contrast of (Human) Scale
International exhibitions of the nineteenth century were, evidently, intensely competitive events. National pride -- in the context of exhibiting technological advances -- was barely under restraint. Ames' article -- cited below -- discusses the sideboard as the prime competitive form for furniture manufacturers.
Sideboards exhibited between 1851 and 1876 show France's position of design leadership affirmed, then challenged, and ultimately denied as England moved into primary position. Ames notes that the sideboard that initiated the battle -- made by Fourdinois of Paris -- was exhibited in London in 1851. "Subsequent English designs emulated French models or sought explicitly English alternatives." European and American sideboards exhibited in Philadelphia in 1876 show the continuing influence of Fourdinois. The English objects, on the other hand, were in eighteenth-century neoclassical, reformed Gothic, or art furniture styles. American work followed English ideas.
Mercifully, after 1876, furniture displays at international exhibitions gradually became less prominent.
In the contrast between Smith in 1876 and Shea in 1976, scale, i.e., "human scale" is above all the leading comparison. In 1876, the scale was industrial, production-line operation -- with woodworking machines appropriatley massive in size; in 1976, the scale was "human", individually-operated stationary power machines, but increasingly, portable.
In England this piece of furniture would be be called a Buffet, but in this country it is almost universally known as a Sideboard.
The prominent position which a sideboard occupies in a dining-room, its use for the display of silver and china, as well as for the necessary articles pertaining to the meals while the latter are going on, make the consideration of artistic design and harmony in its construction a matter of primary importance.
For a sideboard of this era, notes material culture historian, Kenneth Ames, it is "an admirable specimen" that shows off the workmanship of its Philadelphia manufacturers, Allen and Brother.
The principal wood is American walnut, the veneering of the panels and fillets, French walnut.
The sideboard's lower portion is divided into three "closets", for china storage, etc.
The doors to these closets are paneled and ornamented with artistic designs.
On either side of the outer divisions rise walnut columns, with ornamental bases and capitals, supporting slabs of French Jasper. Above these slabs rises the back of the sideboard, its middle portion being occupied by one large sheet of plate-glass, separating the two sides, which also are backed by plate-glass from each other.
In front of these latter an artistic arrangement of shelves, supported by floriated pillars, furnishes a means of effectively displaying rare vases, china or bric-a-brac of any kind. These outer columns are surmounted by ornamental vases, which serve to balance and give harmony to the elaborate entablature which surmounts the inner columns.
Source: Walter Smith, Examples of Household Taste New York: R Worthington, 1880, pages 13-14; Kenneth Ames, "The Battle of the Sideboards" Winterthur Portfolio 9 1974 pages 1-27. With 29 illustrations, this article contextualizes the "mechanization" of the furniture industry, and the subsequent excesses of "taste" wrought by mechanization, themes also referenced by Siegfried Giedion.
John Gerald Shea, Antique Country Furniture of North America, Van Nostrand Reinhold; 1975, page 17; in 1994, Dover reissued the book, retitled as Making Authentic Country Furniture: With Measured Drawings of Museum Classics.
A truly exceptional book in the genre of woodworker's manuals, Antique Country Furniture of North America is a work of both scholarship and artistic flair.
Evidently published to coincide with the nation's Bi-cententennial celebration, 1976, this book celebrates the "simple, functional, handmade designs, which reveal the devotion and craftsmanship of the many nationalities that settled in the United States and Canada" and -- using detailed drawings -- shows amateur woodworkers the steps for creating these masterpieces of folk art.
Rightly, Shea is regarded as a leading authority on American furniture.
Initial chapters -- brief but authoriative -- trace the arrival of different ethnic groups to North America and explain how their lifestyles, their native cultures, and their geographic surroundings combined to develop characteristic styles of furniture:-
New England Colonial
A GENERAL refinement of the public taste in matters pertaining to art and interior decoration is making itself felt more and more clearly.
One of the phases of this feeling and desire for better things is undoubtedly the realization of the charm, beauty of line, and individuality of antique furniture.
Unfortunately the available supply of genuine antiques is so far below the demand that only the favored few can enjoy the possession of artistic old pieces. For the great majority reproductions will have to do. If well made and of true proportions, they will be found to be just as pleasing as the originals, besides being much stronger. The higher class of furniture factories are meeting the demand of the times by turning out many excellent reproductions, which are not merely common adaptations but follow the original in every detail. But reproduction of antique furniture need not necessarily be confined to professional cabinet-makers. It may well be undertaken by high school boys, and many pieces can even be made by students of the eighth grade. Work of this kind may at first appear too difficult; but, when the processes are carefully analyzed, these difficulties will disappear, and the result will he ever so much more pleasing and satisfying than the usual "Mission" type of furniture.
[In 1924, when Hjorth dismisses "Mission" design, he is reflecting the sentment of many in an era of eclipse of Arts and Crafts design in America. Popular in America between 1900 and 1915, Arts and Crafts (and Mission) went underground until about 1970, when it was revived and remains into the 21st century the most popular of "tastee" in surniture design among Americans.]
With this idea in mind, the following material has been compiled. The pieces of furniture illustrated have been selected for their general simplicity and adaptability to the average home. They have been photographed, measured, and translated into working drawings, thus making them available for reproduction. A few suggestions and a short description of the principal technical difficulties involved in the construction of each piece have been added. as well as a chapter giving a brief outline of the art periods and how to distinguish the most important of them.
While the book is intended chiefly for school use, it is hoped that it may also prove of interest to cabinet-makers, amateur woodworkers, and people in general who are interested in good furniture.
Source: Herman Hjorth, Reproduction of Antique Furniture Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Co., 1924
Or, following the rhetorical question in 1938 by John Gerald Shea -- in Provincial Furniture --
The furniture designer is the standard-bearer in all furniture making. Thus it has been through the centuries and thus it will be as long as furniture is made. In the past, such men as Chippendale, Hepplewhite Sheraton, Boulle, Goddard, Duncan Phyfe, and numerous others, have been leaders in this field.
... Responsible for the origination of styles of design, ... their contribution has been lasting and their influence is felt even to the present day.
... [T]he furniture designer may choose to work in one of many ways. ... [I]f he is developing fine furniture -- for his inspiration -- he will ... adhere closely to the important traditions ... [even to] go back many centuries ... and look upon the principal furniture periods.
This designer will be ever aware that he is molding subtle clay and that with every touch he must be rigidly on guard to maintain the proper degree of cultured restraint.
... [A]nother type of designer [is] ... not ... so particular about his adherence to the traditions of furniture. ... This designer usually improvises ... so-called "tricky" or "snappy" pieces ... widely popular with people who are not acquainted with the background of furniture design. From the standpoint of good design there is little value in this type of work. In many instances, it represents the out-and-out mutilation of the most significant characteristics of good design.
It is particularly important that the woodworker give careful thought to the selection of his own design. When deciding upon a project he should keep in mind that equivalent hours of work may result in either a beautiful and valuable article of furniture or a cheap and worthless contraption. Furthermore, he should observe that good hand workmanship acts as a positive enhancement to good design; while it is a wasted ingredient when lavished upon a cheap medium. [Keep in mind that Shea's comments are for woodworkers of the 1930s, and not post-WW II, in an age of more widely available electric portable and stationary woodworking machines.]
Therefore, in the preparation of this book, a basic and proper style of furniture is dealt with. It seemed imperative that only the work of the more thoughtful school of designers be herein presented. Each article was carefully selected according to the criteria of makability, value, and authenticity. Every effort was made to offer a correct representation of the French provincial furniture style, in thoroughly makable form, and to safeguard this offering by utilizing only those designs which possessed genuine value....
Source: John Gerald Shea and Paul Nolt Wenger French ProvincialMilwaukee: The Bruce publishing company, 1938 (not online)
From the late nineteenth century on, there was a range of simultaneous responses to and uses of Arts and Crafts ideas and rhetoric.
The recognizable styles of the Arts and Crafts movement may have changed with fashion and been replaced by Colonial revival, Beaux-Arts, and moderne styles, but the legacy of the movement in American furniture was fourfold:
First, the language of craftsmanship became a new means of marketing furniture. Through the various writings on both intellectual and popular levels, "craftsmanship" became a signifier recognized by both consumer and producer. In merchandising their works in a more competitive fashion, firms sought to educate their clientele about quality through broad general advertising and instructive booklets.
Mere pictures of products and prices were not sufficient. The new advertisements and publications emphasized the importance of construction and the integrity of the process and maker.
For example, the Limbert Company described its workers as being "in sympathy with our ideals of furniture making-men of quick perception and skill, who take an interest in their work and enter into it with enthusiasm-men who derive pleasure and satisfaction in producing articles of superior modeling and construction."31 In the 1920s, the importance of craftsmanship fueled the interest in colonial cabinetmakers and contributed to the widened popularity of American preindustrial furniture, or antiques, which possessed the important qualities of high technical accomplishment by hardworking, honest men.
Even as recently as the early 1980s, craftsmanship remained a primary measure of quality. A catalogue from 1981 explained: "Essential to the success of any piece is the quality of its execution-command of technique through discipline is the sine qua non for any object."32
Second, the groundswell of home workshops preserved some basic technical traditions and laid the foundation for a resurgence of handcrafted furniture in the 1950s.
During the prosperity after World War II, many college graduates turned their avocation into a career. But the hobbyist emphasis of much of the century actually led to technical atrophy in the custom part of the industry.
No base for training existed, and it became harder to recruit qualified woodworkers.
Lost was the cumulative intensity of a continuous tradition.
Third, the aesthetic nature of the reform debate, occurring at a time when marketing and advertising began to exert great influence upon production and consumption decisions, spurred the beginning of academic interest in furniture design and construction.
Initially, this could be seen in the design programs or schools set up by the firms, or in the art schools associated with museums.
The former tended to foster the professionalization of in-house furniture designers, and
the latter tended to produce interior designers or informed consumers.
Although the new academic training focused closer attention on the style of furniture, making design the key signifier in the late 19205 and 1930s, it did not produce a new generation of school-trained craftsmen to replace the dwindling supply of apprentices or immigrant craftsmen.
Only after the GI Bill, the expansion of craft curricula in the 1950s, and the growth of woodworking programs in the 1960s and 19705 was there a sufficient critical mass of skilled furnituremakers trained in the university system. The training of skilled craftspeople lagged behind that of designers.33
Fourth, the production and writings of architects who favored a graphic, two-dimensional approach to furniture became the philosophical legacy for the notions of pure design favored by the next generation.34 Architects' interest in furniture, and their self-conscious writings about their furniture, introduced many to the notions of ahistorical design based upon the principles of harmony, balance, rhythm, symmetry, and other graphic abstractions. This activity also provided the precedent for the anointment of architects, such as Michael Graves and Robert Venturi, as "design stars" in the 1970s and 1980s. These architects provided designs for furniture, coffee services, jewelry, and even doghouses.35 In these ways, the Arts and Crafts movement in furniture design and construction had far-reaching effects that continue to color the making and buying of furniture today.
From William B. Rhoads, "Colonial Revival in American Craft: Nationalism and the Opposition to Multicultural and Regional Traditions", in Janet Kardon, ed., Revivals! Diverse Tradtions, 1920-1945: the history of 20th c American craft. New York: Abrams, 1994, pages 41-54. (get pages from opd)
Rhoads: The link between ancestry and commitment to the colonial was not always predictable. Herman Hjorth, an educator in San Juan, Puerto Rico, with no known ancestral links to Anglo-colonial America, was an expert at reproducing colonial furniture in school industrial-arts shops. Such reproductions, he believed, were valuable not only for technical and aesthetic education but as a supplement to American and English history courses.
Israel Sack, trained as a cabinetmaker in Lithuania, became a noted dealer in American antiques and, through this experience,
He also reproduced furniture hardware and manufactured colonial tin sconces. Continuity was important to Sack, who advertised that beautiful objects served to join generations.44
Source: Herman Hjorth, "Reproducing Antique Furniture in the Schools," Industrial Arts Magazine, vol. 11 (April 1922): 137; Albert Sack, Fine Points of Furniture: Early American (New York: Crown, 1950), dedication page; Antiques, vol. 11, no. 6 (June 1927): 477, 493; I. Sack, Reproductions of Antique Fittings (Boston: I. Sack, n.d.); Antiques, vol. 16, no. 3 93; (September 1929): inside front cover.]
A general refinement of the public taste in matters pertaining to art and interior decoration is making itself felt move and more clearly. One of the phases of this feeling and desire for better things is undoubtedly the realization of the charm, beauty of line, and individuality of antique furniture.
"General Shop": A "Program" Morphs Into a MovementA important concept from the Industrial Arts era of technology education, General Shop refers to the program established in the 1920s which combines manual training, drawing, and home economics into Industrial Arts. Out of General Shop emerged the concept vital to the history of the amateur woodworking, the homeworkshop movement (links coming).
[notes, to be edited] In 1908, Lois Coffey justifiably had begun to attract attention for her work from the State Department of Education in Illinois. While at Macomb, Coffey -- assisted by several other teachers -- she set up the first "general shop," in which students alternated through experiences in shopwork, drawing, and home economics.
Impact: Creation of the Term, "Industrial Arts"This eventually led to the integration of manual training, drawing, and home economics into "industrial arts," a term Coffey was using by 1909.
(Four years earlier, in 1904, Industrial Arts was coined by Charles Richards)
William E. Warner's interpretation of the "general shop" idea, Policies in Industrial Arts Education: Their Application to a Program for Preparing Teachers, would later revolutionize industrial arts, and Warner would later credit Columbia University industrial arts professor Frederick G. Bonser with the general shop theory. (see P. Gemmill, "Industrial arts laboratory facilities-Past, present, and future", in Martin, G. Eugene, ed., "Industrial arts education : retrospect, prospect" Bloomington, IL: American Council on Industrial Arts Teacher Education, 1979)...
Source: Patrick N. Foster "The Founders of Industrial Arts in the US", Journal of Technology Education 7, no 1 1995
The first of these is the fact that the students had not developed much skill in construction, and it was thought unwise and unsafe to permit them to attempt cabinet work involving the use of finer grades of material, and the more difficult forms of construction required in models of any marked degree of complexity or variety in finish.Mr. Hjorth has succeeded in presenting a book which should do much to remove the limitation to finer grades of work by meeting both of the difficulties which have stood in the way.
The second reason has been the absence of any source of models and instructions which would provide good examples in designs that are interesting in variety, classic in style, and yet simple enough in construction to be within the capabilities of students who were not yet expert in workmanship.
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