Charles Harold Hayward
"Self-Employed Carpenter" -- Prolific Author of Woodworker's Manuals -- Editor of Woodworker Magazines
Bio: Born April 26, 1898, in London, the son of a woodworker, Albert Charles Hayward, and mother, Elizabeth (Richards) Hayward, Hayward marries Ivy Edith Milsom on April, 1939, and his marriage produces three children: C. G. Alan, Sylvia R., Lorna H.J.
Educated in London, Hayward serves in World War I for two years, 1916-18.
Hayward -- a self-employed cabinetmaker in London, England, for 12 years, 1913-25, becomes editor of Handicrafts, London, 1925-35, later Woodworker, London, editor, 1935-68. For two years, 1938-39, he lectures at Shoreditch Training College, the same institution where Percy Wells and John Hooper work.
(Aside: Three other London-based woodworkers, Paul Hasluck, Percy Wells and John Hooper, are active writers during this same era, suggesting the likelihood that the three are acquainted, although I am only speculating about the Hasluck connection. (Like Hayward, Wells and Hooper are connected with the Shoreditch Technical Institute in London. I will keep on the lookout for evidence that confirms whether Hayward is acquainted with Hasluck.)
In America, we have to look at R J DeCristoforo as a parallel to Hayward. Both are examples of rare individuals in woodworking circles: both both prolific writers, both started out at a very young age -- Hayward 25 years old, DeCristoforo 30-odd years old -- and, significantly, both are "self-taught", that is, in the sense, neither had formal training in woodworking and neither went to college. According to my calculations from data in Contemporary Authors, Hayward's writing career extends to at least a phenomenal 56 years, 1923 to 1979; overall, Hayward authors, editsd, or contributes to 36 books, the editor of at least two periodicals, which, taken together, is a truly astonishing record.
WRITINGS BY THE AUTHOR:
1924: English Furniture at a Glance: A Simple Review in Pictures of the Origin and Evolution of Furniture from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries, Architectural Press, 1924, Putnam, 1925.
(For a partial online version in pdf of this book, click on the linked title above.)
By "doing the math", we inevitably calculate that Hayward started writing very early. Exhibit 1: The 1924 date on English Furniture at a Glance tells us that this book was written when Hayward was in his early 'twenties. A glance at this book tells us several other things. Taken together, all figures -- "pen-and-ink" -- including 8 stools, 16 chairs, 4 settles, day-beds and settees, 10 chests, 16 armoires, 10 tables, 8 desks, 6 beds, 4 wardrobes, 4 china cabinets, 4 bookcases, 8 mirrors, 8 miscellaneous, total up to just over 100 illustrations. Since no credits are given for the drawings, we have to assume that Hayward is responsible for them. Of greater surprise, though, is the evidence that Hayward both capably researched the extensive background of the history of English furniture and, for his youth, exhibited an unusual maturity of writing ability.
1926: English Rooms and Their Decoration at a Glance: A Simple Review in Pictures of English Rooms and Their Decorations from the Eleventh to the Eighteenth Centuries, Architectural Press, 1925, Putnam, 1926.
1928: Hayward wrote material for Richard Greenhalgh, the editor of Joinery and Carpentry, a six volume set, London: Pitman, 1928, 2nd edition, 1939. (More on this shortly.)
1936: English Period Furniture: An Account of the Evolution of Furniture from 1500 to 1800, 1936, revised edition as English Period Furniture: An Account of the Evolution of Furniture from 1500 to 1850, Evans, 1957, revised edition published as English Period Furniture: An Account of the Evolution of Furniture from 1500 to 1900, Evans, 1977.
In writing this book I have endeavoured to show the kind of furniture in common use in England from about 1500 up to the middle years of the Victorian period. It is an extraordinarily interesting subject, one which goes far beyond a mere recitation of styles. It tells of the lives people led and the conditions they had to face, the whole linked up with the historical events that went to the evolution of Britain as we know it today.The fact is that the furniture made at any particular period was largely the result of the circumstances of life at that time, particularly in the early years. Later when choice was largely dictated by fashion rather than by necessity there was not the same strong reflection of life in general, because when people do things merely because other people do them the result has less meaning than when cicumstances force a line of action upon them.
I have a theory that practical considerations have always had a stronger influence on design than is generally realized, and I hope that this will become obvious to the reader. It is a subject that I have developed more fully in my book, Antique or Fake?
In conclusion I should like to thank those who have been kind enough to give me permission to take down details of old furniture in their possession, or to provide photographs of it for this new edition.
1937: Practical Veneering: The Theory and Practice of Veneering in Cabinet Work, 1937, Lippincott, 1938, new edition published as Practical Veneering: Hammer and Caul Methods, Presses, Built-up Patterns, Marquetry, Inlays 1949, Lippincott, 1950, revised edition, 1979.
1938: The Carpentry Book Van Nostrand, 1938, new edition published as Teach Yourself Carpentry, English Universities Press, 1938, 2nd edition, 1941.
1942: Hammer and Nails Carpentry 1942.
1942: How to Make Strong Wooden Toys 1942.
1943: Home Hobbies in Wood: Useful Things that You Will Enjoy Making 1943.
1943: New Woodwork from Old: What to Make with Old Wood 1943.
1945: The ABC of Woodwork 1945.
1945: (Editor) Staining and Polishing, 1945, revised edition published as Polishing Your Furniture: Staining, French Polishing, Ebonising, Limed Oak Effect, Jacobean Rubbed Finish, Ivory Bleached Treatment, Wax Polishing, Repolishing 1953, revised edition published as Staining and Polishing, Evans, 1963, revised edition published as Staining and Wood Polishing, Sterling, 1980.
1946: Tools for Woodwork: The Sharpening, Care and Use of Hand Tools 1946, reprinted, Lippincott, 1949, revised edition, Evans, 1973, reprinted, Drake, 1976.
1946: Wood Carving for Beginners 1946.
1946: How to Make Woodwork Tools, 1946.
1947: Cabinet Making for Beginners 1947, reprinted, Lippincott, 1948, revised edition, Sterling, 1980.
1949: (Editor) The Woodworker's Pocket Book: Recipes, Materials, Fittings, Tools, Geometry, Woodworking Data 1949, revised edition, Evans, 1980, revised edition, revised by Robert Lento, Prentice-Hall, 1982.
1950: Woodwork Joints: Kinds of Joints, How They Are Cut and Where Used 1950, reprinted, Lippincott, 1951, revised edition, Evans, 1975.
1950: (Editor) Carpentry for Beginners: How to Use Tools, Basic Joints, Workshop Practice, Designs for Things to Make 1950, reprinted, Lippincott, 1951, revised edition, Evans, 1976.
1950: (Editor) Furniture Designs for Dining Room, Sitting Room, Bedroom, Kitchen and Hall, including Scale Elevations, Construction Drawings, Cutting Lists London: Evans Brothers, 1950.
Click on the link for an extended discussion and sample pages from the book above and two other related manuals: charles_hayward_furniture_designs_and_hand_tools_1950.pdf
1951: The Junior Woodworker 1951, reprinted, Lippincott, 1952, revised edition, Evans, 1963, reprinted, Drake, 1973.
1952: Light Machines for Woodwork: Saws, Planers, Spindles, Sanders, Powered Hand Tools 1952, revised edition, 1960.
1952: (Editor) The Handyman's Pocket Book: Materials, Processes, Repairs, and Data for the Householder 1952, 2nd edition, 1960.
1953: (Editor) The Second Book of Furniture Designs 1953.
1953: Polishing Your Woodwork 1953.1955: The Complete Book of Woodwork Lippincott, 1955, reprinted, Drake, 1974.
1956: Period Furniture Designs 1956, revised edition, 1968, reprinted, Sterling, 1982; published as English Period Furniture Designs, Arco, 1969.
1959 Charles H. Hayward, English Period Furniture New York: Van Nostrand, 1959 and later
The case of Robert Adam as a designer of furniture is in a rather different category. Adam was an architect, not a practical cabinet maker, and he designed his furniture specially to suit the houses he built. It was natural, then, that his furniture should show more of a definite break from tradition, because he was not fettered by years of training in a certain established school (with whatever advantages and disadvantages that carries with it). At the same time, the fact that he became an extremely successful architect with a large clientele made it inevitable that he should attract the attention of many cabinet makers, who would make furniture which was either a copy of pure Adam work or was just founded upon it. Thus, except for certain authentic specimens, one cannot hope to do more than classify a piece as being in the style of Adam.
Both the text and the illustrations come from Charles H. Hayward's English Period Furniture
(Editor) The Complete Handyman, Lippincott, 1960, reprinted, Drake, 1976.
1961: (Editor) Garden Woodwork: Greenhouse Sheds, Seats, Beach Chalet, Swings, Gates, Frames, Cycle Sheds, Garage, Poultry House, Pigeon Cote Lippincott, 1961.
1962: Modern Power Woodwork English Universities Press, 1962.
1963: (With William Wheeler) Practical Wood Carving and Gilding 1963, revised edition, Evans, 1973, reprinted as Wood Carving, Drake, 1972, reprinted as Wood Carving: The Beginner's Guide, Sterling, 1979.
1963: (Editor) Making Toys in Wood< 1963, revised edition, Sterling, 1980, updated and revised edition, revised by Alan and Gill Bridgewater, Sterling, 1993.
1965: Practical Woodwork 1965, revised edition, Sterling, 1978.
1966: Making Furniture 1966. Furniture Repairs, Van Nostrand, 1967, revised and reset as Antique Furniture Repairs, Scribner, 1976.
1968: (Editor) English Period Furniture Designs 1968 Reissued by Arco 1976
Chairs with cabriole legs
Quote on right comes from Hayward's 1936 English Period Furniture, above:
The introduction of the cabriole leg seemed to strike a new note in the design of chairs. It was not simply that a new motif was being used, but that the whole conception of the design became altered. Compare, for example, the two chairs Fig. 9 and 10. It is obvious that the one has turned uprights whilst the other has shaped ones, but, in addition, there is an entirely new spirit in that in Fig. 10. In the earlier example, Fig. 9, one is conscious of a series of parts jointed together in an obvious sort of way. It is not suggested that this is a fault, but simply that the construction is at once apparent. One can count up the parts - two uprights, cresting rail, lower rail, seat rail, stretcher, and so on. And the earlier the chair the more obvious the parts and their purpose becomes.
Now turn to Fig. 10. It is not easy to see where the uprights and the top rail of the back begin and end. They merge one into the other, and the same thing applies to the slat and the rail beneath. The back is one whole, so to speak, and we shall find that this feeling becomes still more apparent in later chairs.
Reverting to the legs again, these are an early form of the cabriole type, and exemplify the Dutch influence which the accession of William of Orange brought with it. The probability is that many of these chairs were the work of foreign craftsmen who settled down here. A cabriole leg is by no means an easy thing to make, and it is doubtful whether a native craftsman could have turned out a really fine shape without previous experience. The awkward point about making the leg is that it is difficult to set down the true shape on paper. It can be drawn at the front, side, and possibly three-quarter positions, but the actual leg is seen from all angles and is normally viewed from above, a viewpoint which the drawing does not present.
Furthermore, in the very nature of the work the guiding lines on the wood are cut away as the work proceeds, because the whole thing is more or less rounded in section. In actual practice the leg is cut out of a square right through to the over-all shape when looked at from the front. A corresponding shape is cut at the side, this producing a square-cut shape. The point to realize is that the cutting of the first shape automatically removes the lines of the second shape, and it is only by temporarily replacing the sawn-away parts that the shape can be cut true. In any case the resulting shape has only a distant resemblance to the finished line, and it is in the final shaping that experience is needed, because there are no square lines to which to work. Everything is curved in both directions and it is only by eye that a really fine shape can be produced, one which looks well when seen from every angle. The whole thing is complicated when carving is to appear, because sufficient thickness has to be allowed for this, and the presence of these plain lumps is apt to give a false impression of the shape as a whole.
We have gone into these practical points at some length because the cabriole leg became so characteristic a feature of furniture for the following seventy-five years or so. Really fine legs are few and far between, the majority being overdone in the shape, and we shall find that they deteriorated considerably after Queen Anne's reign until rescued by the school of Chippendale.
In the present instance, Fig. 10, it will be noticed that the legs terminate in a hoof foot, whilst at the top the sides are scrolled in imitation of the horns of the goat. These details are often found in William and Mary furniture, after which they gave place to the turned club foot, as illustrated in Fig. 11. In the meantime it should be noted that the legs are still linked together with stretcher rails. It is true that the last-named are on an altogether lighter scale than in earlier pieces (see Fig. 5, page 53) and are gracefully shaped, but the chair-maker has not yet felt confident enough to omit them entirely, which was the next stage in the development of the chair.
Another feature of the chair in Fig. 10 met with for the first time is the curve in the rake of the back, and it is interesting to glance at the diagram in Fig. 12, which shows the various stages of development. There is the earliest straight post J cut from a square of timber and continuing from leg to back in a straight line. This was used mostly in the old settles of Gothic times (see Fig. 18, page 31). Then came the idea of setting the back at an angle K, a phase which lasted until past the middle of the seventeenth century. An example is given in Fig. 2, page 49. In the same period in a few chairs little blocks were added at the bottom as at L to help to counterbalance the weight. This is exemplified in Fig 20, page 33. Next, the legs were at last splayed as at M, though the back still remained straight without any curve (see Fig. 6, page 74). N gives the next development, as in the chair in Fig. 10, whilst 0 shows the shape which the majority of chairs in the later eighteenth century had, of which Fig. 2, page 116 is an example.
A last point to note about the chair in Fig. 10 is the shaped splat. This was something quite fresh (see last example in Fig. 9), and had certain definite stages in development. It is shown in the armchair in Fig. 11 in its most characteristic form. Apart from its shaped edges it follows the general line of the back when viewed from the side.
1968: (Editor) Woodworker's Question Box 1968, Drake Publishers, 1971.
1970: Antique or Fake?: The Making of Old Furniture 1970, St. Martin's 1972, reprinted, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1981.
1970: Antique Furniture Designs C. Scribner's, 1979.
1970: Editor Woodworkers Annual Evans Brothers, 1949-50, 1956-59.
1973: Charles H Hayward, Tools For Woodwork New York: Drake, 1976, 127 pages
Published in England in 1973, this slight looking manual -- with many photos and diagrams that illustrate tools and techniques -- even today has much wisdom for amateur woodworkers, especially those just starting out. I use "slight" not to denigrate the book, but to draw attention to the deceptiveness of its compact size. Only 127 pages, still it covers the array of hand tools at the disposal of woodworkers in the 1970s.
(In his tenth chapter, on portable power tools,Hayward's acknowledges the recent growth -- remember it's the beginning of the 1970s -- in greater interest among woodworkers for power tools: -- "powered hand tools", e.g., portable circular saws, jig saws, the portable planer, the router, the orbital sander.)
Selected Images and Text from Tools For Woodwork
Table of Contents:
Tools and Metrication:
(Strangely, this page missing, but no evidence exists that it was removed after publication; instead it looks like an oversight publisher)
Introduction Chapter one
Saws Pitch of teeth, bevel, set, tension, size, hand saws, back saws, saws for cutting curves, special saws, sharpening.
Chapter two Planes Bench planes, cutting action, back iron, mouth sharpening, use of, rebate, grooving, moulding, universal and compass.
Chapter three Chisels and Gouges Types of, sharpening, cutting action; carving tools, types of sharpening.
Chapter four Marking out and Testing Tools: Gauges, squares, diagonal rod, parallel strips, marking knife, spirit level, rules.
Chapter five Boring Tools: Braces, bits, use of brace and bit, sharpening bits, drill, bradawl, automatic drill, dowelling jig.
Chapter six Spokeshaves, Scrapers, Scraper Planes, Routers, etc. Wood spokeshave, metal spokeshave, draw knife, scrapers, scraper plane, routers, scratch-stock.
Chapter seven Hammers, Mallets, Punches, Pincers, etc. Hammers, mallets, pincers, punches, nail pulls, screwdrivers, axe, adze, dowel plate, splitting wedges, glue pots, screw box and tap, shapers, rasp, file, float, riffler, cork rubber, oilstone and slips, grindstone, emery wheel, veneering hammer.
Chapter eight Cramps [British for "clamps"] Sash, cramp heads, handscrews, G. quick action, thumbscrew, corner, spring, improvised, flooring, band.
Chapter nine Appliances: Sawing appliances, planing appliances, chiselling appliances.
Chapter ten Powered Hand Tools: Circular saw, jig saw, powered plane, sanders, rebater and moulder, router, dovetailer.
The router can be used as a spindle moulder, capable of moulding or grooving. For this the tool is reversed beneath the bench, the bit protruding through a hole, and a fence fixed on the table. The wood is then pressed close up to this.
Fig. 12 shows the router fixed beneath a special stand made for the purpose. For straight work it is usually convenient to fix a fence to the table. This fence is adjustable towards and away from the cutter, and a recess is cut at the middle to clear the revolving cutter tips. Usually a cutter without nose is fitted, the edge of the wood bearing against the fence. In this form the router is virtually a form of spindle moulder.
Tool kit (That is, the image above)
A knowledge of tools is a fundamental necessity to the man who goes in seriously for woodwork. It makes all the difference between success and failure in what is one of the most interesting and useful of crafts. It includes knowing how to choose tools in accordance with the general run of work to be done, how to sharpen them and keep them in condition, understanding their cutting action, and knowing how to use them.
Taking these points in their order, consider the wide range of tools listed in most tool dealers' catalogues. The number of types and sizes is almost bewildering in its vastness, and the beginner may well find himself in a state of uncertainty in making his choice unless he has some guidance. Then, proper sharpening is an obvious necessity; you cannot do good work with tools which are blunt or which have been badly sharpened, and you may easily seriously harm good tools by faulty treatment. Understanding the cutting action may not appear so essential, but a little reflection shows that the man who realizes just how a tool does its work will get the best out of it. Furthermore, he will certainly be better able to correct any fault that may develop. Finally, the necessity of knowing how to use tools is so obvious as to need no enlarging.
In this book we have endeavoured to cover all these points. The range of tools is divided into general classifications to give easy reference, and their main features are described. In addition a suggested list of tools is given in which the woodworker is advised to invest. This includes a preliminary kit, a further list which can follow as the necessity arises, and those tools which can be made at home. Certain of the tools given in this book may be unobtainable as they have gone out of production, but they are included because there are many of them still in constant use, and they are excellent tools.
An important point to be emphasised is the necessity of buying good tools. It may seem strange that two tools, apparently the same, may have widely varying prices, but the difference will soon make itself felt. A good tool will last a lifetime and will always be a joy to use; a poor one will soon develop faults and will be more of a handicap than a help. The best plan is to select tools of well-known, reliable make, knowing that they have behind them the guarantee of a firm with a reputation to maintain.
The present edition includes a chapter on powered hand tools because of the growing tendency to use them even in a hand workshop to speed up some of the more laborious operations such as ripping, etc.
Saws for Cutting Curves:-- Bow saw.
This is the most satisfactory tool to use, the reason being that the blade is held in constant tension by means of the top cord which is tightened tourniquet fashion. (Click here for more on Bow Saw.) It is available to hold saws from 200mm. (8in.) up to 400mm. (16in.) in length, a useful all-round size being 250mm. (10in.) or 300mm. (12in.). It will be seen that the saw blade is secured at one end to a knob and at the other to the handle. Both these are free to revolve in the arms so that the saw can be set to work in any direction. It is obviously important to see that both knob and handle are in alignment as otherwise the blade will be twisted.
The advantage of being able to turn the blade is that it enables the saw to be worked in positions which would be impossible if they had to remain fixed. For instance, a long cut could be made parallel with the edge of a board by setting the blade to cut at right angles with the arms.
It can also be used for internal cuts. In this case a hole is bored through the wood and one of the rivets securing the blade is knocked out. This enables the blade to be withdrawn from its socket and passed through the hole. The only limit to the usefulness of the tool is the distance between the blade and the middle cross bar. Obviously it cannot work at a distance greater from the edge than this.In use both hands grip the handle as shown in Fig. 26. The wood is fixed in the vice as low as possible so that it receives support close to where the actual cut is taking place. It is obviously necessary to keep the blade square with the wood and this is a matter which comes with experience and practice. When finished with the tension on the blade should be slackened.