Arthur Wakeling and the Formation of the National Homeworkshop Guild in the 1930s

Each of the two volumes are extensively illustrated, so this a lengthy page. These volumes became the "bibles" of many of the amateur woodworkers who joined the NHG.

1930: Arthur Wakeling, ed. The Home Workshop Manual. Popular Science Publishing, 1930. 502 pages.

Indexed in Index to Handicrafts 1936

Two books published in 1930 continue to be interesting in several ways: this one, The Home Workshop Manual and Things to make in your home workshop. Specifically designed for the homeworkshop -- especially National Homeworkshop Guild members -- both books are edited by Arthur Wakeling, an editor at the Popular Science Monthly, and both feature contributions by  distinguished Industrial Arts instructors

Mysteries about these books abound though. What is the chemistry that resulted in their publication?

Apart from mention the existence of the NHG in the 1938 Preface, additional   evidence exists in two locations:

(1) in the book's front matter, including the the list of contributors and the Introduction, "On Becoming a Handyman" and

(2) pages of the Popular Science Monthly of the 1930s.

Thus there is this problem: how to explain the reasons for this convergence of

(1) the Homeworkshop Movement -- an event that occurred across the 1920s in Industrial Arts programs --,

(2) the publication in 1930 of the books, The Home Workshop Manual and Things to make in your home workshop, both books under the editorship of Arthur Wakeling, but with significant contributions from several IA people,

(3) the formation of the Leisure League of America in 1935 -- 

(For more on the LLA, click here: Working With Tools, 1935, a pamphlet produced by Harry Hobbs, editor of Home Craftsman, a magazine begun by the Walker-Turner Company, one of the major manufacturers of power tools for the home workshop.)

And, to make

(4), along with the Home Craftsman, two other magazines with content directed toward amateur woodworker emerged in the very early 1930s: the Deltagram, an organ designed to promote Delta woodworking tools, and the independent, Popular Homecraft.  

I doubt if I will ever be able to do what really is necessary to determine the details of this convergence: examine the public and private papers of the major players. I work on my own dime for this project, and looking at those papers would involve expensive, labor-intensive trips to New York, Chicago, and several places in between. Such problems, though, are the "nuts and bolts" of writing history.

The verso of the title page shows 14 reprintings, starting in 1930, and stretching to 1939, or about 35,000 copies – my calculations are 2500 copies per reprinting.

The latest reprinting is March, 1939. Also in 1930, under the imprint of both Grosset and Dunlap and Popular Science Monthly, portions of this book are republished as Things to Make in Your Workshop. Its original 502 pages are reduced to 255. The verso of the 1930 title page shows that it is copyright, 1930, by Popular Science Monthly.

However, Wakeling, writing the “preface” in 1938, acknowledges his “five years of directing the National Homeworkshop Guild, ...  a nonprofit organization -- [that originated in 1933] -- of about 300 home workshop clubs in forty-four states, the District of Columbia, and Canada.”

Curiously,  Wakeling records the headquarters of the “Guild” at “347 Fourth Avenue, New York City.” Other information says the headquarters is Rockford Illinois.


That “…[a]bout 300” chapters of the National Homeworkshop Guild were formed between 1934 and 1939 helps solve the mystery of why this book was reprinted so frequently during the Depression. With the editor also the director of the Guild, this book would undoubtedly receive considerable publicity. As well as being purchased by members of respective chapters of the Guild, chapter libraries would likely purchase copies.

Below, in the light gray-shaded box, is the book's front matter:


HOME WORKSHOP MANUAL

HOW TO MAKE FURNITURE, SHIP AND AIRPLANE MODELS, RADIO SETS, TOYS, NOVELTIES, HOUSE AND GARDEN CONVENIENCES, SPORTING EQUIPMENT—WOODWORKING METHODS—USE AND CARE OF TOOLS—WOOD TURNING AND ART METAL WORK—PAINTING AND DECORATING

[1930 and 1939, portions republished, with a different configuration of chapters, as Things to Make in Your Home Workshop]

Edited by ARTHUR WA K E L I N G, HOME WORKSHOP EDITOR, Popular Science Monthly

With 735 Working Drawings, Diagrams, and Illustrations 

POPULAR SCIENCE PUBLISHING CO., INC.
NEW YORK, 1930

COPYRIGHT, 1930

By POPULAR SCIENCE PUBLISHING CO., Inc.

All Rights Reserved Published, February, 1930

Second Printing, December, 1930
Third Printing, August, 1931
Fourth Printing, November, 1935
Fifth Printing, October. 193`
Sixth Printing, October, 1934
Seventh Printing, July, 1935
Eighth Printing, March, 1936
Ninth Printing, November, 1936
Tenth Printing, February, 1937
Eleventh Printing, May, 1937
Twelfth Printing, November, 1938
Thirteenth Printing, January, 1939
Fourteenth Printing, March, 1939

PREFACE

I N THE belief that a well-equipped home workshop offers one of the most thoroughly satisfying and wholly profitable of all hobbies, the editor has brought together in this book the best ideas of a number of craftsmen and teachers on the principal subjects that interest men who like to work with tools.

Primarily, the purpose of this book is to help readers obtain more pleasure from their home workshops. The more the amateur gains in experience, the more expert he becomes in using tools, the more projects he builds, the greater will be his enjoyment.

This purpose has influenced to a considerable degree the ar­rangement of the material. The greater part of the book is given over to instructions for making specific projects—furniture, models, toys, novelties, radio sets, decorative metal work, house and garden conveniences, and boating, fishing, and sporting equip­ment. The emphasis has been placed upon projects rather than upon methods. After all, we learn by doing. The best way for the amateur mechanic to learn various tool processes—indeed, the only way for him to learn them thoroughly enough to be of any real value to him—is to select a project in which the operations are involved and develop it step by step. The project itself should be an interesting and useful one so that it will arouse enthusiasm and keep his interest at fever pitch. Consequently, the editor has endeavored to supply designs for suitable projects in such a large number that any man, no matter what his tastes, will find sufficient ideas to occupy him until he is thoroughly competent to develop original work of his own.

Since it is only by making things that one can learn the tool processes involved, the problems of construction are explained one at a time as they arise in connection with the individual projects. The last three chapters have been arranged, however, to bring together for ready reference a large amount of information on tools for wood and metal, on home workshop equipment, and on joints, tool processes, and workshop methods. In these chapters, as, indeed, throughout the entire book, photographs and drawings have been used as far as possible to show exactly what should be done, because in many cases a single photograph will tell far more than half a page of text. 

No one man, obviously, could write with authority on the large number of topics treated in this manual. The work of practically all the leading contributors to the Home Workshop Department of Popular Science Monthly has been drawn upon freely. The editor has been exceedingly fortunate in having the assistance of so large a number of expert craftsmen. Their contributions are scattered through the book in such a way that it is not possible to identify the work of each, but special recognition should be given the following : 

Frederick J. Bryant, Supervisor of Manual Arts, Auburn, Maine, and author of the books Furniture Projects and Working Drawings of Colonial Furniture, for many of the measured draw­ings of Colonial furniture used in Chapter I.  

Herman Hjorth, of the Saunders Trade School, Yonkers, N. Y., formerly General Supervisor of Manual Arts in Porto Rico, and the author of  Reproduction of Antique Furniture, for the majority of the modernistic designs in Chapter II and for practically all of the wood turning material in Chapter VII.  

William W. Klenke, a practicing architect, an instructor of shopwork in the Central Manual Training High School, Newark, N. J., and author of Art and Education in Wood Turning, for all of Chapter III on small woodworking machinery except one suggestion at the end of the chapter.  

Edward Thatcher, for many years a teacher of decorative metal work and wood carving at Teachers College, Columbia University, for the first four toys described in Chapter V, for the larger part of Chapter VIII on decorative metal work, and for the parts of Chapters XIV and XV on tools for metal work. 

F. Clarke Hughes, a teacher of industrial arts in Spokane, Wash., and author of Hand Work for Boys, for the doll's house and the bird and animal toys described in Chapter V and for many of the novelties in Chapter VI.  

Capt. E. Armitage McCann, Secretary of the Ship Model Makers' Club, author of three books on ship model making, and one of the world's foremost authorities on ship models, for the historic ship models in Chapter IX.  

Alfred P. Lane, Technical Editor of Popular Science, Monthly, for the hints on operating model railroads in Chapter IX and for the radio material in Chapter X.  

L. M. Roehl, Assistant Professor in the Department of Rural Engineering, Cornell University, and the author of Household Carpentry, for contributions to Chapter XI.  

Chelsea Fraser, an instructor of manual training at Grand Rapids, Mich., and author of The Practical Book of  Home Repairs and many other books, for a contribution on the care of pocketknives in Chapter XIV.  

Emanuel E. Ericson, head of the Department of Vocational Education and Community .Mechanics, State Teachers College, Santa Barbara, Calif., for providing a large part of the material on woodworking methods in Chapters XIV, XV, and XVI.  

Charles A. King, the author of a series of textbooks on woodworking and carpentry, for wood-working material in Chapters I, XI, and XVI. 

Thanks are equally due to the following contributors:

R. E. Alexander, Leon H. Baxter, Colin G. Blair, Jonathan Bright, G. A. Buck, J. Danner Bunch, Walter E. Burton, J. Warren Campbell, Herbert I. Childs, Donald W. Clark, S. L. Coover, Warren N. Crane, John P. Dunn, Everett Eames, J. C. Eddie, William J. Edmonds, Jr., Berton Elliot, Carl G. Erich, Joseph Falk, W. L. Faurot, Frederick E. Fox, George Gordon, Jr., Sam­uel Gore, H. R. Goppert, Frank E. Gray, Morris A. Hall, John G. Hanna, J. V. Hazzard, L. St. John Hely, Dick Hutchinson, Vincent L. Johnstone, Olympic Jones, George F. Kaereher, Avison F. Koch, R. L. Kretz, W. Clyde Lammey, Clara M. Langsdorf, Henry S. Laraby, Kenneth R. LaVoy, Douglas Leeebman, Newcomb Leonarde, Robert Page Lincoln, Edwin M. Love, Joseph J. Lukowitz, C. R. McCashland, Fred W. Megow, Philip H. Miller, E. M. Oren, H. V. Patterson, Albert S. Peacock, L. D. Perry, R. L. Ready, E. A. Rerucha, William Rodgers, Arthur Scriven, B. G. Seielstad, Hi Sibley, M. Cyle Smock, Jr., the late Ernest F. Spencer, one of the foremost authorities on glue; E. Sprague, R. C. Stanley, Harold P. Strand, Frank O. Taafel, Marie Childs Todd, F. E. Tustison, F. N. Vanderwalker, William H. Varnum, William T. Weld, Ben Wellwood, and A. M. Youngquist.

 

In supervising the preparation of the illustrations, Israel Doskow, Art Editor of  Popular Science Monthly, and Harry Samuels, his assistant, have lifted a heavy burden from the shoulders of the editor. Other members of the staff of Popular Science Monthly who have assisted in preparing the book and reading the proofs are Arthur Goldenbaum, C. Korch, F. M. Theel, and Maximilian Platt. 

In compressing so much material into one volume, the editor is well aware there may be serious omissions. To present so large a variety of projects, it has been necessary to condense the instructions as sharply as possible. In fact, certain single chapters could each be expanded into a book and still not answer all the questions that might arise. It is sincerely hoped that readers who encounter problems which do not seem to be sufficiently explained or who discover errors in the minor details of either drawings or text will use their own ingenuity to overcome these shortcomings. 

More important than anything else in the home workshop is ingenuity or "gumption." The editor cannot emphasize this too emphatically. From long experience in dealing with readers of Popular Science Monthly, he feels that home workers should look upon all unexpected problems—either in obtaining materials or in carrying out the tool operations—as a challenge to their ingenuity. The very obstacles that must be overcome make the ultimate achievement all the more gratifying. 

Once the editor discussed this problem with Daniel Carter Beard, National Scout Commissioner of the Boy Scouts of Amer­ica, and asked him to write an article on gumption with tools. He did so, and, after several columns of characteristic anecdotes, concluded by saying: "With gumption a man can make almost anything. It is the primitive, forceful quality of human mind backed and strengthened by modern education that produces our Fords and Edisons. This quality of mind is one of the most valuable assets we Americans possess. It means success in business, in the professions, in statesmanship and science, and it can be summed up in the good old-fashioned word gumption." 

With a genuine liking for tools and a little gumption any man or boy can make a success of his home workshop. 

ARTHUR WAKELING New York, February. 1930

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PREFACE
 
INTRODUCTION —ON BECOMING A HANDY MAN    .
 
CHAPTER I BUILDING FURNITURE BY HAND:

Frederick J. Bryant, Supervisor of Manual Arts, Auburn, Maine, and author of the books Furniture Projects and Working Drawings of Colonial Furniture, for many of the measured draw­ings of Colonial furniture used in Chapter I. Charles A. King, the author of a series of textbooks on woodworking and carpentry, for wood-working material in Chapters I, XI, and XVI.        .
 
CHAPTER  II FURNITURE OF MODERN DESIGN:

Herman Hjorth, of the Saunders Trade School, Yonkers, N. Y., formerly General Supervisor of Manual Arts in Porto Rico, and the author of  Reproduction of Antique Furniture, for the majority of the modernistic designs in Chapter II and for practically all of the wood turning material in Chapter VII.
 
 
CHAPTER III SMALL WOODWORKING MACHINERY:
 
William W. Klenke, a practicing architect, an instructor of shopwork in the Central Manual Training High School, Newark, N. J., and author of Art and Education in Wood Turning, for all of Chapter III on small woodworking machinery except one suggestion at the end of the chapter.
 
       
CHAPTER IV HOW TO REPAIR FURNITURE:      
 
CHAPTER V TOYS TO DELIGHT THE CHILDREN:
 
Edward Thatcher, for many years a teacher of decorative metal work and wood carving at Teachers College, Columbia University, for the first four toys described in Chapter V, for the larger part of Chapter VIII on decorative metal work, and for the parts of Chapters XIV and XV on tools for metal work. F. Clarke Hughes, a teacher of industrial arts in Spokane, Wash., and author of Hand Work for Boys, for the doll's house and the bird and animal toys described in Chapter V and for many of the novelties in Chapter VI.
 
        .
 
CHAPTER VI NOVELTIES—ORNAMENTAL AND AMUSING:   
F. Clarke Hughes, a teacher of industrial arts in Spokane, Wash., and author of Hand Work for Boys, for the doll's house and the bird and animal toys described in Chapter V and for many of the novelties in Chapter VI.
 
.
CHAPTER VII WOOD TURNING SIMPLIFIED:

     
Herman Hjorth, of the Saunders Trade School, Yonkers, N. Y., formerly General Supervisor of Manual Arts in Porto Rico, and the author of  Reproduction of Antique Furniture, for the majority of the modernistic designs in Chapter II and for practically all of the wood turning material in Chapter VII.
.
 
CHAPTER VIII DECORATIVE METAL WORK:


Edward Thatcher, for many years a teacher of decorative metal work and wood carving at Teachers College, Columbia University, for the first four toys described in Chapter V, for the larger part of Chapter VIII on decorative metal work, and for the parts of Chapters XIV and XV on tools for metal work.
 
        .
CHAPTER IX MODEL MAKING:

       
Capt. E. Armitage McCann, Secre­tary of the Ship Model Makers' Club, author of three books on ship model making, and one of the world's foremost authorities on ship models, for the historic ship models in Chapter IX.
.
 
CHAPTER X RADIO AND ELECTRICAL PROJECTS:
 
Alfred P. Lane, Technical Editor of Popular Science, Monthly, for the hints on operating model railroads in Chapter IX and for the radio material in Chapter X.
 
 
CHAPTER XI IMPROVEMENTS FOR HOUSE AND GARDEN:
 
L. M. Roehl, Assistant Professor in the Department of Rural Engineering, Cornell University, and the author of Household Carpentry, for contributions to Chapter XI. Charles A. King, the author of a series of textbooks on woodworking and carpentry, for wood-working material in Chapters I, XI, and XVI.
 
 
 
CHAPTER XII BOATING, FISHING, AND SPORTING EQUIPMENT:
 
CHAPTER XIII PAINTING AND DECORATING:
        .
CHAPTER XIV TOOLS FOR WOOD AND METAL:
Edward Thatcher, for many years a teacher of decorative metal work and wood carving at Teachers College, Columbia University, for the first four toys described in Chapter V, for the larger part of Chapter VIII on decorative metal work, and for the parts of Chapters XIV and XV on tools for metal work. Chelsea Fraser, an instructor of manual training at Grand Rapids, Mich., and author of The Practical Book of  Home Repairs and many other books, for a contribution on the care of pocketknives in Chapter XIV. Emanuel E. Ericson, head of the Department of Vocational Education and Community .Mechanics, State Teachers College, Santa Barbara, Calif., for providing a large part of the material on woodworking methods in Chapters XIV, XV, and XVI.
 
 
       
.
CHAPTER XV HOME WORKSHOP EQUIPMENT:
 
Edward Thatcher, for many years a teacher of decorative metal work and wood carving at Teachers College, Columbia University, for the first four toys described in Chapter V, for the larger part of Chapter VIII on decorative metal work, and for the parts of Chapters XIV and XV on tools for metal work. Emanuel E. Ericson, head of the Department of Vocational Education and Community .Mechanics, State Teachers College, Santa Barbara, Calif., for providing a large part of the material on woodworking methods in Chapters XIV, XV, and XVI.
 
 
 
CHAPTER XVI BETTER HOME WORKSHOP METHODS:

       
Emanuel E. Ericson, head of the Department of Vocational Education and Community .Mechanics, State Teachers College, Santa Barbara, Calif., for providing a large part of the material on woodworking methods in Chapters XIV, XV, and XVI. Charles A. King, the author of a series of textbooks on woodworking and carpentry, for wood-working material in Chapters I, XI, and XVI.
 
 
INDEX .
        .
INTRODUCTION: ON BECOMING A HANDY MAN

 

D 0 you know what? I wish the State Board of Education would empower me to hand out the de­gree of H. M. In England they might think it meant "His Majesty," but here in America it means "Handy Man." 

Remember, A. B. stands not only for Bachelor of Arts, but also for Able Sea-man. The Able Seaman may be dying out, but the Handy Man, never! I would find him everywhere, in almost every walk of life, but especially in the little house that is paid for (or being paid for) through the Building and Loan Association. 

The supper dishes have been washed and Mother is about to switch out the kitchen light, when she says: "Poppa, you better buy us a new clock tomorrow. Our old one stopped today. I wound it and shook it, and it just wouldn't go." A gleam comes into Poppa's eyes—a gleam of sport ahead. It isn't the sport of paying out $2.79 for a new "Good Morning" from New Haven, Conn. No, sir! That's a good clock, if only women knew how to treat a clock.

The women go into the living room and Pop has the kitchen to himself. Has he got everything? His reading glasses, a feather, benzine bottle, tweezers, fine screw driver, and some saucers?

All right! Off with coat and vest and let's sit down to the nice enamel-top kitchen table and find out what's wrong. Let's draw "Good Morning" out of his nickel shell. Aha! Kitchen grease and fluff on the pallets of the escapement -- two years of kitchen vapor. Benzine on the feather fixes that. Might as well touch up the ends of all the train arbors while we are at it. 

Look again. Mother said she shook the clock hard. She certainly did, for she shook the staff of the balance wheel clear out of its seating! Now easy with the tweezers and don't strain the hair spring. A soft sound, not so hard as "snap," and then the little balance wheel is going again like sixty. Little drop of watch oil now, just for affection, on the end of a hatpin (these days Poppa has hatpins in his workbox, now that the girls don't use them). 

"Good Morning," they called you, and the way you are going, old clock, it will be some time before we call you "Good Night." 

Just then I step in on behalf of the Board of Education and view the whole works. But more, I view the man. He is glowing with pride. He has rescued something good from the ash barrel. "Man," I say, "Man, you're a wonder. You're not only a Good Man: you're a Handy Man. This diploma that I am awarding to you says so!" 

Or I spy the village doctor some eve­ning down in the laundry peering into a wash boiler. "What is it, doctor?" I ask, "Home brew?" "No, sir," he says. "As fine a piece of plastic surgery as ever I saw. The cook punched the wash stick clean through that copper bottom last week. She said the old wash boiler had sprung a leak! Didn't seem to realize that the grill top of a gas stove doesn't give much resistance to punching sticks. What do you think of my soldering? I patched it with a penny, and no disre­spect to Abraham Lincoln, either." 

"Honest Abe would love you, doctor. Here's another well-earned diploma: H. M.—Handy Man." 

Oh, I would find my Handy Men! I would find a drygoods clerk sneaking up to the attic out of Second-Grade Mary's way, praying she won't discover him, because he loves her so much. And why? Doll's house! Two stories, with bathroom and cupola. Glazed windows cut with father's glass-cutter! Pilas­ters smoothed with father's little block plane! Green and white color-varnish flowed on from father's little brush! Real shingles on the little roof out of that extra piece of printed linoleum father saved. Got to get busy at once if it is to be ready for the Birthday. 

Doll's house! You can buy them in the stores. But if you do, you commit sacrilege. A doll's house is holy when father makes it. He's twice the father, and Second-Grade Mary will never for-get that little house if she lives to be ninety. What she always remembers is, "Father made it for me with his own hands." Handy Man!

Oh, keep on, brothers, even if you never get your diploma. Keep on mak­ing things and mending things with your own hands. Never mind if so-called "practical men" say you fiddle away your spare time and money. What do they do with their spare time and money? 

And you women. Be human. Let your husband make a few shavings in the kitchen. Let him clamp his little vise on the table. Let the boy heat his sol­dering iron on the gas - stove. If you don't, you're killing something divine which the Creator put into that man, and it must come out. Men can't bring forth babies. They can't be forever at their regular work. Let them be Handy Men—and fervently thank God if you've got one in your home. 

Postscript—Some happy day the good architects will do a new thing. Instead of marking that little 8 by 8 foot room "Den" (you'd think a man was a bear), they'll mark it "Home Work-shop"! And why not?

GILBERT P. SYMONS.



1930: Wakeling, Arthur, ed. Things to make in your home workshop. 1930. Grosset and Dunlap; Popular Science. $1.00.
 

Indexed in Index to Handicrafts 1936. Reprinted virtually unchanged in 1939, this volume is a stripped down version of Wakeling’s The Home Workshop Manual, cited above. (Compare the tables-of-contents for the respective volumes, side-by-side, above.) Below is the 1939 preface -- (Wakeling shows the year he wrote it as  1938):


PREFACE
 


Those who have tasted the delights of the home workshop hobby will need no encouragement to plunge right into the text of this book. Others, however, may not realize that there is no hobby quite like this one.

The desire to work with one's hands is fundamental. It is so basic in human nature that the urge to satisfy it cannot be stilled, and for this reason the home workshop hobby has a deep-seated appeal. And it is doubly satisfying because after you have constructed something, you not only have had the pleasure of creation, but you actually possess the object itself to use, to display to your friends, or to give away. Something tangible remains to bear witness to your efforts.

In addition, it is a hobby that pays for itself — and how many hobbies do that? The cost of tools and materials is made up many times in the value of what is constructed and in the money saved by making repairs about the house, rehabilitating old furniture, fixing broken toys, restoring sporting equipment to usefulness, and the like. Another incalculable advantage in this hobby is the fact that it brings fathers and sons closer together. In their mutual interest in constructing something, the boy and his father develop a comradeship and sympathetic under-standing that does them both good. It is, indeed, a hobby for all ages. Finally, this is a hobby that leaves no regrets. You may perhaps spend a few more ollars for some machine tool than your wife approves of, but as soon as you have made something useful with its aid and demonstrated that it will really be a paying investment, you will be forgiven, never fear!

The writer's enthusiasm for the hobby is the result of nearly twenty years spent in editing the Home Workshop Department of Popular Science Monthly and five years in directing the National Homeworkshop Guild. The latter is a noncommercial, nonprofit organization of about 300 home workshop clubs in forty-four states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. (Keep in mind that Wakeling is writing in 1938.)It charges no dues and its sole purpose is to promote good comradeship among amateur craftworkers. If there is a club in your locality, you should look it up. Information on this point may be obtained by writing the national headquarters of the Guild, 347 Fourth Avenue, New York City.

In this book you will find a collection of the best ideas of the countless thousands that have come to the editor's desk. Information of three types is given: First, tools and their care, and the equipment of the home shop; second, methods and operations; third, projects to construct.

[The Table of Contents is directly above.] The way to learn how to use tools is to make articles with them, so the major portion of the book is devoted to the construction of actual projects—furniture, toys, house and garden improvements, novelties, and models.

The work of many experts has been compressed into this volume.

Emanuel E. Ericson, director of industrial education, State Teachers College, Santa Barbara, Calif., prepared much of the material in the first three chapters.

Practically all of Chapter V is the work of William W. Klenke, instructor of shopwork in the Central Manual Training High School, Newark, N. J. He is a practicing architect and the author of Selected Furniture Drawings and many other books on craftwork.

Herman Hjorth, of the Saunders Trade School, Yonkers; N. Y., the author of Machine Woodworking, Basic Woodworking Processes, Reproduction of Antique Furniture, and other books, wrote almost all of Chapter VI.

Edward Thatcher, for many years a teacher of decorative metal work and wood carving at Teachers College, Columbia University, and

F. Clarke Hughes, a teacher of industrial arts in Spokane, Wash., and author of Hand Work for Boys, were the designers of the toys in Chapter VII.

The late Capt. E. Armitage McCann, who was responsible more than any other man for the popularization of the ship model making hobby, built the model of the Santa Maria described in Chapter IX.

The sailing yacht model in the same chapter was designed by A. M. Youngquist, of the Morrison R. Waite High School, Toledo, Ohio.

Acknowledgments are also due to the following: Leon H. Baxter, Jonathan Bright, Frederick J. Bryant, Warren N. Crane, Everett Eames, J. C. Eddie, Berton Elliot, Carl G. Erich, Frederick E. Fox, Chelsea Fraser, Samuel Gore, Charles A. King, Kenneth R. LaVoy, Edwin M. Love, Joseph J. Lukowitz, Philip H. Miller, E. M. Oren, L. M. Roehl, B. G. Seielstad, Hi Sibley, Ernest F. Spencer, R. C. Stanley, Harold P. Strand, Frank O. Taafel, Marie Childs Todd, and F. N. Vandewalker.

ARTHUR WAKELING

New York, November, 1938