Selected portions of the

1932 Walker-Turner Co., Woodworker's Handbook: A Practical Manual for Guidance in Planning, Installing and Operating Power Workshops Plainfield, NJ: Walker-Turner Company, 1932. 121 pages

I confess that before undertaking this project -- write an online history of America's amateur woodworking movement -- I was unaware of what a rich source of vintage woodworker's manuals existed. (At at the project's beginning, I started buying the old manuals via bookfinder.com -- they are quite inexpensive -- and now have quite a respectable collection.)

Produced by Walker-Turner, one of several early manufacturers of scaled-down power woodworking machines, this 1932 manual -- composed of a whopping 127 pages of text and images -- is an excellent example of the quality of these manuals. Designed for woodworkers in homeworkshops, they were written in an age when obvious limits existed for the size of a project a woodworker might undertake: 8" blades on circular saws, 4" jointers, 1/2-hp motors driving the machines-- -- were available for purchase. Below is the text of the manual's "Preface", the "table-of-contents", and the entire text of the chapter on the "Tripod Stand and Table Top".

(I picked this project because while the scale is diminutitive, it is at the same a complex project that involves some tricky veneering, and thus even with today's improvements over 1930s woodworking technology, is still very challenging.)

The manuals table-of-contents is deceptive, however. Beginning on page 73, the TOC shows a "Woodworking Power Tool Section" and then on page 121, "helpful Shop Hints". In other words, 48 pages of the manual are dedicated to the "Woodworking Power Tool Section", and in that portion of the manual are images and descriptive details of the numerous power machines produced by WT, including several models of lathes, bench circular saws, jig saws, bench-top spers, grinders and polishing heads, jointers, belt sanders, and other machines manufactured by WT. Coupled with these descriptions are suggestions and hints on correct "how-to" operation techniques, lubrication and maintenance, and so forth, or otherwise pretty well all that in needed for the woodworker in the homeworkshop to get off to a successful start of a rewarding hobby.

Click here for a pdf on owwm for of the complete text of this WT Woodworker's Handbook


walker_turner_WH_toc_1932

PREFACE

In preparing this, the third Driver Manual, we have endeavored to submit projects that would appeal to the man who is just becoming interested in tools and their use, as well as to the advanced craftsman. Above all we have tried to confine our views to facts - to solving the problems that beset every user of tools, in simple, practical ways which are the result of intimate contact with wood­working tools and their uses.

Each project described here has been carefully worked out by an experienced furniture designer whose creations in finished furniture are on display in salesrooms the country over.

First the rough drawings were sketched, then each separate part was made, and the piece assembled and finished.

Every step and problem has been submitted to craftsmen not nearly so expert to be sure the operations would not entail too much skill for the average amateur.

Every mechanical operation was performed with stock "Driver" Power Tools and accessories.

Many craftsmen who are capable of doing excellent work have been disappointed with the result of their efforts in building a project mainly because the design or proportions were incorrect. After all it is just as easy to build correctly and certainly there is more satisfaction when the article made is a thing of appealing beauty and symmetry.

We have attempted to place before you all the available information on the subjects covered. If you find this book helpful in your work we will be fully repaid by knowing that we have rendered a definite service. If we have not we would welcome your calling any shortcomings to our attention.

Please feel that the services of our furniture designers are at your command to answer any problems you may encounter in woodworking just as our engineers are always ready to help you with mechanical problems.

Educational Dept.,

Walker-Turner Co., Inc.






walker_turner_WH_tripod_stand_1932
A LITTLE unusual in its assembly, in that the top may be lifted and carried away as a tray, is this little adaptation of an old Hepplewhite tripod stand. Hepplewhite was the famous American cabinet maker of the 18th century, who has left us many a priceless memento of his handiwork. The fact that many of them are copied today and are in popular demand (and try as we will no designer seems able to improve on their beauty) is ample proof of the correct­ness and beauty of their design.

Adapting the idea of the old tripod stand and adding a matched crotch mahogany veneered top we have as a result a wonderful little coffee table. And it teaches many things to the newer craftsman, and gives fine practice to the more advanced. walker_turner_WH_schematic1_1932

Making the Tripod Section




First, it is almost imperative that a full size layout or drawing be made, to get the shapes of the legs, turnings, the angles of the spindles, and the size and angles at which to cut the veneer for the top. Be particular in laying out the full size plan of the knee block and the ball top of the turning. Note that the spindles are on centres between the legs.

Bandsaw the legs, leaving a small shoulder on the inside so you can bore for the dowel which is inserted in the "toe" of the leg. This prevents the toe from breaking off under excess strain. Note how the grain is indicated. After the glue on these dowels has hardened the shoulder may be sawed off. The bevel is 1/4" x 1/4" and is easily cut by tilting the bandsaw or jig saw table to 45 degrees. Or it may be done by hand with a spoke shave. If the leg has been tapered properly the beveling should leave a uniform flat on the upper surface of the leg, with straight line edges. Locate centres for dowels.

The knee block is one piece, bandsawed and drum sanded. Transfer leg dowel centers. Bore for these and for 3/4" turning dowel.

walker_turner_WH_schematic2_1932 Make your turning template and your spindle turning. Pay particular attention to the sphere at the top. Upend the turning and stand it upright on the exact centre of your plan and mark where the three centres for the spindles will come. To get the correct angle at which to bore the holes, lay the spindle on its side on the drawing, and sketch a line on the ball by sighting, which will be a continuation of the centre line of the spindle centre. Repeat for three spindle centres. Now clamp the ball in a wooden cabinet clamp and lay this clamp on the drill press table with turning hang­ing over, to adjust the angle, through the medium of your sight line and the drill. See sketch of this operation on the drawing. There is nothing hard about it, but take your time and get set up properly before doing the actual boring.

Turn the three spindles with the ends a tight fit for 1/2" hole.

The assembly is easily done, but see that the spindles centre properly between the legs and that they are equi-distant from the centre to the ball-shaped ends. Check up with your drawing by inverting and stand on the drawing, resting on the ends of the spindles.

Making the Top

walker_turner_WH_schematic3_1932

For the top, a solid top may be substituted for the veneered one, but remember, it will warp and it will not have the grace nor appear­ance of the veneered top. A five-ply veneered top of plain mahogany or walnut may be used instead of the matched veneer top, if losing in this substitution only the appearance.

Crotch mahogany or crotch walnut is a cranky thing to handle, the natural grain of the veneer making it' curl or warp badly. Six pieces of straight grain mahogany may be used with good effect, as suggested in the sketch. Note the direction of the grain. To match up the veneer, take six pieces of veneer board sufficient . size and put them between two pieces of 1/2" or 1/4" board. With No. 18 or No. 19 brads, nail these together, clinching the brads over each side. Treat this as a solid board and carefully cut out the shape of a segment one-sixth of a circle or a 600 angle. Do all planing toward the point with a large plane or the jointer. Get it as nearly 60 degree accurate as you can. Remove the clamp boards. Take three of the veneer segments and tape them together with gummed paper tape, making sure the joints are good. Do the same with the other three. Clamp these two halves between two boards and plane the two edges straight. Now tape these two half circles together.

Using a compass, draw a circle the exact diameter of inlay motif No. ID-21 and cut out the veneer of the segments to as close a fit for the motif as possible. Cut away the veneer that surrounds the motif and set it in, with the paper side on the same side of your veneer as your taping. Tape it in.

Your core piece is made up of enough pieces of board to make a piece 23 inches square. It is better to use eight pieces 3 inches wide jointed and glued together, than two pieces 11-1/2" wide, making a stronger core and with less likelihood of warping.

For home craftsmen who have not the facilities for properly handling glue, the casein type of glue is recommended for veneering, since its slow-setting qualities are ideal. A rather thick paste is used. Provide yourself with some kind of a roller or make a small edition of a rolling pin, with which to spread the glue. A wide trowel or putty knife may also b used.

It is assumed that the craftsman has provided himself with the veneering press, as outlined among the accessories.

Veneering

The procedure in veneering is as follows. Lay one-half of your press on a box or table, where you can slip the braces on and off. Lay a sheet of newspaper over the surface and on this lay your backing veneer. It is the usual thing that whatever veneer used on the face, is used on the back, except in the case where the back will be concealed, in which case any cheap veneer will do.

Now, coat both sides of a sheet of poplar veneer with the glue, spreading it to an even coat with the roller. Lay this on the backing veneer, with the grain at right angles to the backing. On this lay your core, which has been surfaced to 11/16" thick, and lay it with the grain parallel to the backing veneer.

Now coat both sides of another piece of poplar veneer and lay it on the core, again crossing the grain with the backing and the core. On this lay your matched veneer top, taping side out. If a solid sheet of face veneer is used, run the grain parallel to the core and the backing. You now have the backing, core and face grains running one way, with the poplar intermediate or "crosslay" veneers at right angles to them. Clamp this in the press, giving it all the pressure possible, clamping down first on the brace which crosses at the middle, following with the others so as to get an even pressure. Twelve to twenty-four hours should be allowed for the glue to set.

After taking the top out of the press, draw a circle 22 inches in diameter, using the centre of the inlay motif as a centre. Scrape and sand away all paper taping and bandsaw carefully to the circle drawn. Sand the edge as carefully as if it were going to be left square. With cutter SS-16 on the shaper and a collar 11/," in diam­eter as a bearing collar, cut a quarter round all around the top edge of the top. Be careful to hold the panel firmly down on the shaper bed while shaping. Sand the edge and the quarter-round.

With a cabinet scraper and sandpaper no coarser than 0/0, smooth the face veneer, finishing with 4/0 paper. Do not use a plane.

The little horseshoe-shaped collars are located on the back and glued in place. A ring made of three or more segments, 18" inside diameter, 20-1/2" outside diameter and 3/4 " thick may be used in place of these collars, if the top is to be lifted off frequently. Check the location by placing the assembled tripod in an inverted position on the back of the panel.

The model in the laboratory workshop was stained and finished in a deep cherry color on the mahogany, which brings out the grain of the crotch veneer used, with telling effect. It will look as well in brown mahogany or walnut. Hepplewhite and mahogany are a synonomous combination, and when one mentions the first he thinks of the other, and for this reason, mahogany is recommended.

walker_turner_WH_material_1932




In the table below I attempted to capture from the single blue-print sheet the five suggested benchtop layouts for the WT featured in pages 73-120 of this manual. Scanning all five of suggested layouts required separating each of the five proposed layouts from the larger blue print sheet, scanning and digitizing these layouts one-at-a-time, and placing them in 1-2-3 order on this webpage.


VARIOUS BENCH LAYOUTS for POWER TOOLS

In using any one of the four [actually five] suggested bench layouts on this blueprint use, the 12-inch scale shown above to get the approximate location of machines. Mount motor and countershafts first. Set machines in place, move and adjust for alignment and tension of belt, locate bolt holes. Be sure to secure each machine firmly to the bench.

In planning these layouts we have given special consideration to the man with limited space. Probably the most ideal layouts would include some of the larger tools on machine stands with separate motors. The placing of these stands would be dependent upon each craftsman's special requirements.

Planned by

THE EDUCATIONAL DEPT.

WALKER-TURNER CO., Inc.

Plainfield New Jersey

[Note from your editor: The first bench layout is incomplete. The original is too large for my scanner, and until I can get access to a photocopy machine to reduce it down to a smaller size, this image will have to do the trick. (A curiosity about this manual -- very complete about how to operate and maintain all the benchtop WT machines -- is that no mention is made of wiring of the shop itself, so that the appropriate levels of power would reach the motor. Correct or not, my assumption is that, in 1932, technology is still in the era of "socket-driven", rather than a "fully-wired" basement or garage. Perhaps variations in set-ups existed -- some socket-driven, some -- especially in newer construction -- wired for "plug-in" outlets.)]

walker_turner_WH_bench_lay1 walker_turner_WH_bench_lay2 walker_turner_WH_bench_lay3 walker_turner_WH_bench_lay4 walker_turner_WH_bench_lay5