Wood-Working Tools: How to Use Them

Link to pdf version of Chapter 8, "Joinery". This Chapter's contents is dedicated to the mortise-and-tenon joint, and includes -- step-by-step -- a detailed account of how the joint is constructed. wood-working_tools_toc_1881


From: Robert Seidel and Margaret Kelver SmithIndustrial Instruction: A Pedagogic and Social Necessity ; Together with a Critique Upon Objections Advanced Boston: D.C. Heath & Co., 1887

    Manual Training. " When a man teaches his son no trade, it is as if he taught him highway robbery.'' Wood-Working Tools: How to Use Them. A handbook for teachers and pupils. Edited (for the Industrial School Association) by Channing Whitaker, Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 5^ by 7^ inches. Cloth. 104 pages. With 80 illustrations. Price by mail, 55 cents. Introduction price, 50 cents. A COURSE of simple lessons in the use of the universal tools: the hammer, knife, axe, plane, rule, chalk-line, square, gauge, chisel, saw, and augur. The lessons are so amply illustrated that any bright boy will find the book alone a great help in his endeavors to learn the right way of using common tools. Nearly half of the illustrations were taken from life, and are efficient substitutes for lengthy and important printed instructions. The book is the result of actual experiments successfully made by the Industrial School Association of Boston. It will help people, who are interested in systematic and efficient industrial education, to begin it. " The Industrial School Association conducted small industrial schools at its own expense. It set itself to prepare a manual of instruction, based upon the actual experience of its teachers, with the aid of other teachers, in like schools in Gloucester and Cambridge, and this book is the result. Of course, its size is no indication of the labor and thought and money it has cost. As far as it goes, it aims to teach, and it does teach, how to use wood-working tools with singular thoroughness and intelligence. The Rev. George Leonard Chaney, President of the Association, writes a brief introduction, in which he says: ' A single workroom, like the one used by this school in Church Street, in any city, for the six months from December to May, during which time it usually lies idle, with very little expense beyond the original plant and a moderate salary to the teacher, would meet all the wants of three or four of the largest grammar schools for boys. Three such supplementary schools, if used in turn, would amply satisfy all the rightful claims of industrial education of this kind upon the school system of such a city as Boston. At so small an outlay of attention and money might the native aptitude of the American youth for manual skill be turned into useful channels. In so simple a way might the .needed check be given to that exclusive tendency towards classical rather than industrial pursuits which the present school course undoubtedly promotes.' We heartily welcome this little book for what it is, and of course what it promises, as we hope, for industrial education." - Boston Dailv Advertiser. " Industrial education is becoming a popular theme, and for the welfare of society it is to be hoped that it will receive more and more attention. With the common-school system it may properly be intimately combined. No one should say aught against purely literary and scientific learning, but since so few are destined to a sole use of these acquisitions, in after-life it is important that knowledge available for the million should be more freely bestowed upon the young than it is. Since the lapse into disuse of the apprentice system, skilled workers for their efficiency have pretty much been left to their own resources in acquiring knowledge of a chosen occupation. To remedy this defect in the training of children, industrial schools, and special departments in ordinary schools, are now desired to meet the necessary want. As a text-book for this purpose, Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, have published 'Wood-Working Tools: How to Use Them.' It is an illustrated manual of fourteen chapters, and aims to promote the handicraft required in all trades. To any youth with a native aptitude for the use of tools and a taste for mechanical work, it has all the requisites of an elementary volume, besides being as entertaining as it is plain and useful. The several chapters treat very fully of striking, splitting, cutting, planing, sharpening, adjusting, marking, sawing, reducing surfaces, squaring surfaces, boring, joining, finishing, etc. The work has been of great benefit in the industrial schools of Boston and elsewhere. Throughout the country it may with profit be universally adopted in every school, public or private, where young persons are taught." - Dubuque Trade Journal. The Bureau of Education at Washington has shown a great interest in this book, and sent it to several schools of science, who acknowledged its receipt by the following letters of commendation :- C. F. Brackett, Prof, of Physics, College of New Jersey : It is an admirable little book. Every boy should be taught just the things it so well presents. Chas. Babcock, Prof, of Architecture in Cornell Univ.: I commend it heartily. Eobt. W. Doutheat, Sec'vfor School of Mines, Holla, Mo. : I feel free to say that I have never before seen a book which so completely and satisfactorily sets forth the true methods of using the tools needed by wood-workers. A. Vander Naillen, Pres. of School of Science, San Francisco, Cal.: I really think it not only very useful, but the idea full of possibilities. If followed up by other books on similar subjects, and as copiously illustrated, the idea will be a civilizing one, and the benefit to our rising generations simply incalculable. Richard Mott, Pres. of Toledo (O.) Univ. of Arts and Trades: This is a good work. An intelligent scholar can acquire from it a fair elementary knowledge of the trade without apprenticeship. Chas. H. Benjamin, Dept. Mech. Engineering, Me. State Coll.: It will Manual Training. doubtless be adopted as a basis for a course of instruction in wood-work. The Nation: It is a model of clear and concise directions. N. Y. Times: It wastes no words, but by terse text and apt illustration describes the operations of the wood-worker. To a nation of whittlers and choppers it should be a boon. Builder and 'Wood-Worker, N.Y.: The work is within the capacity of any one trustworthy enough to own a sharp jack-knife; indeed, if the book was placed in the hands of every boy in the United States, both boys and States would be benefited. The Carpenter, St. Louis: No better present could be given a boy, and carpenters would do well to see that it is in the hands of their sons. Youth's Examiner, Chicago: This is one of the neatest and most useful volumes it has been our privilege to notice for some time. C. H. Dietrich, Supt. of Schools, Hop- kinsville, Ky.: It is a perfect gem. It deserves to find a place in every family in America, and should be put in the hands of every boy, high or low, rich or poor. By Prof. C. M. Woodward, of the Manual Training School, Washington University, St. Louis. 'HPHIS book is exceedingly practical, its main object being to show just how a manual training school should be organized and conducted. It contains courses of study, programmes of daily exercises, and working drawings and descriptions of class exercises in wood and metal. The course of drawing, which has proved eminently successful in the St. Louis school, is quite fully given. [Readv in October. THE FOLLOWING TABLE OF CONTENTS WILL GIVE A GOOD IDEA OF THE CHARACTER OF DR. WOOD- WARD'S BOOK. CHAPTER I. Historical Introduction II. The First Year Of The Manual Training School . III. The Second Year Op The Manual Training School . IV. The Third Year Of The Manual Training School . V. The Records And Testimony Of Graduates . VI. What Others Who Have Seen It Say Of The Results Of Manual Training VII. The Complementary Nature Of Manual Training. (Saratoya Address of 1881) VIII. The Fruits Of Manual Training. (Saratoga Address 0f1883) IX. Manual Training A Feature In General Education. (Philadelphia Address of 1885) X. The Origin, Aims, Methods, And Dignity Of Polytech- Nic Training. (St. Louis Address of 1873). XI. Manual Education. (St. Louis Address of 1878) . XII. Extracts From The Prospectus Of 1879 .... XIII. The Province Of Public Education. (Chicago Address 0f1887) XIV. European Schools XV. Plans, Shop Discipline, Teachers, Reports, Etc. . APPENDICES. I. St. Lou1s Manual Training School Course Of Study . II. Toledo Manual Training School Course Of Study For Girls III. Daily Program Of The Toledo High And Manual Training School IV. Manual Training In The High School. (Address of Gen. Francis A. Walker at Chicago, 1887) V. Manual Training In School Education. (By Sir Philip Maynuis)

    Source:Industrial School Association, Wood-working Tools: How to Use Them. A Manual Boston: Ginn & Heath, for the Industrial School Association, 1881

United States Congressional Serial Set By United States Government Printing Office Published by U.S. G.P.O., 1903



    With us hundreds of boys and girls are annually dropping out of school, either because they must become wage-earners or because of age and loss of mental grip. Lacking development, they may easily become criminals or parasites upon society. With the door of opportunity opening in such school, the boys and girls of the seventh and eighth grades in the schools would continue until they secured a training which would enable them to become efficient-would fit them for the life to be led.

    The time devoted to this industrial training should be increased and less given to the purely academic side of education. Many would doubtless find themselves in wood or food or cloth, and so would desire to go forward to the higher course in the technical school. There can be little question about the change of attitude toward life and service which such an opportunity must work in hundreds of our youth. It would take away the reproach so often heard that education spoils the boys and girls for their world's work. To one who comprehends the condition here this training is a crying need. The high schools, academic and technical, beckon the alert ambitious to come up higher, but for the ordinary ones, those whose start was late or whose minds are slow, there is nothing to spur to greater effort. Were one to racialize the subject, strong arguments could be presented to prove the great good that would accrue to the colored youth of the city.


    It is therefore respectfully recommended that you ask for the establishment of at least one such manual training building in the southern part of the city (south AVash- ington) in the next appropriation bill to the Congress.

    The following extract is taken from the report of the instructor in charge, of this subject in the graded schools:

    I desire to call attention to all of the rooms that are used as shops. The one at Stevens is dark and too small for the work. The Mott, Cook, Randall, and Lincoln shops are dark and have to be lighted by gas, often at midday. The Sumner shop is dark, damp, and too small, but can be improved by cutting the windows down lower and making an area around the south and west walls. The shop at Birney is well lighted but small. The River road shop is well lighted and in good condition. These dark rooms have a bad effect on the pupils' eyes. I think that these rooms should be cheerful, spacious, and well ventilated, as such things have a tendency to lofty aspirations.

    I wish also to call your attention to the present equipment of the shops, namely, the benches and tools. These have been in use for the last ten or fifteen years. Some of the shops badly need refitting with tools and benches. I would recommend that there be placed in each shop a bottle of liquid court-plaster, a bottle of witch- hazel, a bottle or arnica, and bandages, as often a pupil is cut, and the medicine case in the principal's room is so far away a boy might bleed to death before necessary treatment could be given him. For years I have carried the court-plaster in iny pocket and find it very useful.

    I further respectfully recommend that at least three copies of each of the following books be placed in each shop for the use of both teacher and pupils:

      1. "Bench Work in Wood," W. F. M. Goss.

      2. "Wood Working Tools; How to Use Them," D. C. Heath & Co.

      3. "The Sloyd System of Wood Working," B. B. Hoffman.

    I would suggest that there be suitable four-room buildings located in each of the divisions to be used for cooking, sewing, and bench work; that at least two more teachers for bench work be appointed.

    The teachers under my charge have put forth their best efforts to keep the work up to a high standard.